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Seeds

In broad sense, seed is a material which is used for planting or regeneration purpose. However scientifically, Seed is a fertilized matured ovule together covered with seed coat is called seed or it is a propagating material i.e., part of agriculture, sericulture, silviculture and horticultural plants used for sowing or planting purpose.

Seed may be defined as “Structurally a true seed is a fertilized matured ovule, consisting of an embryonic plant, a store of food and a protective seed coat, a store of food consists of cotyledons and endosperm”


SEED, IMPROTANCE AND ITS BENEFITS

1 What is seed?

Seed is a fertilized matured ovule together covered with seed coat is called seed or it is a propagating material i.e., part of agriculture, sericulture, silviculture and horticultural plants used for sowing or planting purpose.

Seed may be defined as “Structurally a true seed is a fertilized matured ovule, consisting of an embryonic plant, a store of food and a protective seed coat, a store of food consists of cotyledons and endosperm”

1.1 Definition of seed

However, from the seed technological point of view seed may be sexually produced matured ovule consisting of an intact embryo, endosperm and or cotyledon with protective covering (seed coat). It also refers to propagating materials of healthy seedlings, tuber, bulbs, rhizome,roots,cuttings, setts, slips, all types of grafts and vegetatively propagating materials used for production purpose.

Thus seed is the most vital and crucial input for crop production, one of the ways to increase the productivity without adding appreciably to the extent of land now under cultivation by planting quality seed.

1.2 IMPORTANCE OF SEED


Seed bridge between the two generation of plant life.
Seed is the medium which transferring character from one generation to next generation.
Seed is the vital and most important input for crop production.
Seed as food, feed, medicinal, industries or ornamental value.

Seed is the basic and crucial input for successful crop production, which holds the key to the farm productivity and profitability. The advent of modern plant breeding and technology advances in seed industry has played a significant role in evolution of high yielding varieties and hybrids. The principles of introduction, selection, heterosis, use of Cytoplasmic male sterility, self incompatibility and genetic engineering (tissue culture; embryo culture, etc.) has been exploited in developing new varieties and hybrids by the plant breeder and thus this sudden change have brought and contributed to green revolution in early sixties in the world. It is estimated that good quality seeds of improved varieties can contribute about of 20-25 percent increase in production. Thus good quality seeds are seeds of green revolution.

1.3 Benefits of using quality seeds

  1. The good quality seed has high return per unit area as the genetic potentiality of the crop can be fully exploited.

  2. Less infestation of land with weed seed.

  3. Less disease and insect problem.

  4. Minimization of seed/seedling rate i.e., fast and uniform emergence of seedling.

  5. They are vigorous, free from pests and disease.

  6. They can be adopted themselves for extreme climatic condition and cropping system of the location.

  7. The quality seed respond well to the applied fertilizers and nutrients.

  8. Good seed prolongs life of a variety.

  9. Uniform in plant population and maturity.

  10. Crop raised with quality seed are aesthetically pleasing.

Handling in post-harvest operation will be easy hence processing and breakage will be less.

  1. Yield prediction is very easy.

  2. Preparations of finished products are also better.

  3. High produce value and their marketability.

  4. They are genetically pure (true to type).

  5. They are free from noxious, objectionable weeds, admixture, weed seeds and other crop seeds and insects.

  6. They are physiologically good in terms of germination, vigour, viability and sound health.

  7. The quality seed responds to the applied fertilizers and nutrients.


Seed quality

Seed quality can be defined as it is a relative term and means the degree of excellence when compared to an acceptable standard. The seeds meeting required standard of genetic purity, good health and physiological purity (viability and vigour) and other attributes be referred as quality seed.

The quality seed have following characters

  1. Seed should be adoptable crop/ variety/hybrid and their duration should be according to the agro-climatic sand cropping system of the locality

  2. They are genetically pure (true type) with high sowing quality, good yield potential, evenness in growth pattern, maturity and should meet the purpose of evaluation

  3. The seed should be free from seed borne diseases and physiological disorders due to deficiency of plant nutrients or bleaching due to adverse weather.

  4. The seed should be large, plump, bold uniform in size, shape, colour, texture and proper test weight.

  5. The seed should be clean and free from inert matter. Eg. dirt, girt, trash a soil and sticky substances such as pulp and juice.

  6. It should be free from admixture; noxious or objectionable weed seed, other crop seeds and insects.

  7. It should be whole, not broken, half rotten, half filled affected with damp.

  8. The seed should be as fresh as possible or of the proper age.

  9. The seed should contain required amount of moisture.

  10. The good seed are physiological good in terms of germination, vigour, viability and sound health.

Seed Protein ppt
Found at ebookbrowse.com



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