Responsive image

Seed Production of different crops



Forage Crops


Seed production techniques in fodder crops Maize
(ZEA MAYS L)

Climate:

Maize is a short day plant and is cultivated from 150 N to 450 S latitude and from sea level to 13000 feet altitude with a temperature range of 130c to 320c (55 to 90.80F). Long day conditions with rainy moist weather increases the duration of vegetative phase. Thrives best in warm climates where the day temperatures are fairly high (21-270C), and night temperatures are too low (130C). High temperature and low humidity will kill the leaves and tassels and prevent pollination. Heavy rains and dry hot winds are both unfavourable. Cold spells retard the growth and reduce yields. Frost is also injurious. A uniform soil temperature of 16-18C is suitable for the germination and seedling emergence from the soil. The optimum soil temperature range for Maize growth is said to be 26-290C.

Rain Fall

Maize grows in area of annual rainfall of 10” to 200” and the optimum rainfall is 24 to 40” except where the crop is irrigated. Heavy rainfall on one hand and hot weather on the other are unfavourable and frost damages the crop.

Soil

Deep, medium texture, well drained, high water holding capacity, capable of delivering all the essential elements with a pH of about 6.5, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) 20 milli equivalents per 100 gram of soil, Saturation percentage 20-30% with less than 10% sodium, water holding capacity 2%, bulk density is not more than 1.3.


Maize Variety African Tall Seed Production

Crop:

A tall plant grows 9 to 11 feet height, number leaves ranges from 11 to 14, the length of leaves are upto 3 feet with a width of about 11 to 14 cms. High yielding open pollinated variety, responds very well with intensive cultivation with heavy fertilizer and copious irrigation. Under fertile soil and favourable climatic situation, the plant yields two or more cobs of normal size with a maximum seed and fodder yield equally excelling all native hybrids and varieties. Seeds and cobs are of white colour. Plant measures in 110

Sowing season:

Maize Seed Production crop should be sown invariably between the end of May to end of July as per weather situation in Karnataka. Late sowing beyond this period exposes the crop to downy mildew disease attack. The disease incidence will be increasing proportionately to the delay in sowing towards cold season reducing the seed yield. Timely sowing on the advocated period definitely increases the vigour of the crop leading to more seed yield without any disease incidence.

Land requirement:

Land to be used for seed production shall be free from volunteer plant.

Field inspection:

A minimum of two inspections shall be made in such a way that one is conducted before flowering and the other during flowering.

Field Standards:

General requirement

  • Isolation:The Seed Production fields shall be isolated from the contaminate with an isolation distance of about 400 meters from the field of other varieties and from the fields of same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification / labeling and from Teosinte.


Specific requirements:

A maximum of only one (1%) percent is permitted for any off-type plants that have shed or are shedding pollen at any one inspection during flowering when 5% or more of the plants in the Seed field have receptive silks.


Seed Standards

Seed ears inspected after harvest shall not contain in excess of 1% of off-type ears including the ears with off-coloured kernels.


Factor

Standard

Pure seed (minimum)

98%

Inert matter (maximum)

2%

Other crop seeds (maximum)

5/kg

Other distinguishable varieties based on kernel colour and texture (maximum)

10/kg

Weed seed (maximum)

None

Germination (minimum)

90%

Moisture (maximum)

12%

For vapour-proof containers (maximum)

8%

Shelling

Shelling of seed ears is to be after thorough drying upto 12% and after getting permission from the appropriate authorities.


Field Preparation

Plough the field with the optimum moisture and make weed free field. Apply about 2000 kgs of well decomposed poultry manure or about 20 cartloads of well rotten farm yard manure and pulvaries mixing the manure well into the soil during the last ploughing.

Seeds: Seed rate : 20kgs/ha.

Seed treatment:

Maize seeds should invariably be treated with Apron 35ws powder @7 grams/kg of seed by adding 10 ml of water together as a slurry, mix them well and dry it before sowing. Apron is a CIBA company product containing Metalaxyl active ingredient, which controls downy mildew, damping-off and seedling rots.


Sowing:

The treated seeds should be sown in lines at 60 cms between lines and 30cm between seed to seed at a depth of about 5-7 cm deep. The sowing lines can be made by cultivator tynes fitted behind the Tractor. Fertilizer also be applied in the same line one after another, where seeds are sown.


Caution:

While sowing, fertilizer and seeds should not be mixed together. Seeds and fertilizer be applied in the same lines one after the another for easy and uniform placement. Run wooden planker to cover the seeds and fertilizer immediately after their application, under the soil.


Fertilizer:

Maize being an exhaustive crop needs N:P:K @ 120 : 60 : 50 kgs and 25 kgs of Zinc sulphate per hectare.


Basal dressing:

At the time of sowing, apply the entire quantity of P, K, Zinc suplhate and 1/3 of N, i.e., 40:60:50 kgs of NPK and 25 kgs of Zn So4, after mixing them well uniformly in the furrow line continuously where the seeds are to be sown or already sown.


Top Dressing:

  • Apply 40 kgs of N after 45 days of sowing when the crop attained an height of about 18” and

  • Second top dressing be done with the remaining 40 kgs of N during the tassel (male flower) emergence stage of the crop. Fertilizer material be applied at 2-3 cm away from the sides of each plant when the soil is moist enough to absorb the fertilizer material or earthing up be done immediately after fertilizer application followed by copious irrigation.


Irrigation:

Irrigation immediately after sowing. Seeds will germinate in a week time. Subsequent irrigation be given at 7 to 10 days interval based upon the soil and climatic conditions.


Weed Control:

If there is sufficient soil moisture after sowing, spray Atrazine or Simazine @ 1.5 kg a.i/ha mixed with 600 litres of water as pre-emergence application through sprayer uniformally on the surface which will control most of the broad leaved or dicot weeds. Or keep the field weed free by manual weeding and hoeing before the first top dressing of fertilizer.


Plant Protection:

Generally, Maize plant is infested with shoot borer causing dead hearts in the early stage followed by aphid incidence during active growth stage to tasselling stage and cob borer damage at cob development to maturity phase.

  • Granule of Solvirex 5% or Furadan 3% or Phorate or Thimmet 10% as per the individual manufacturing company’s recommendation be applied at the time of sowing in the furrows which will protect the plant from insect pests upto 40 days of sowing.

  • A combination of systemic + contact insecticide mixer be sprayed at active growth stage to cob formation phase at 20 days interval to ward off the infesting insects as per the recommendations of the Company.

  • Disease control measure was already given in the seed sowing stage.

  • Insecticide be applied only during the morning or evening hours when the sun shine or temperature is very less. Windy days are to be avoided for spraying any chemical.

  • Carefully avoid chemical application adopting cultural methods like early sowing and crop rotation in the farm evading cool seasons, which period is congenial for insect and disease incidence.


Harvesting

The entire Maize cob be dried thoroughly upto 12% moisture in the plant itself for proper harvest to maintain seed quality.


Shelling:

Seed cobs be shelled at 12% moisture status. Shelling with high cob moisture will damage the seeds, while shelling with machine or Tractor affecting seed germination drastically. Before shelling, remove unwanted cobs having different colours, other than pearl white, damaged and poorly filled cobs etc. for quality seeds.


Drying:

Seed must be thoroughly dried between 8-12% for safe and long storage. Properly dried seeds be processed through Seed Processing Machines and the cleaned Seeds are treated with Thiram 75% WDP or Captan 75% WDP @ 70 gms for 100 kgs of Seeds as slurry adding 1 / 2 ltr of water. Thus the treated seeds be packed and stored for future marketing / sowing.


Yield:

On an average 50-60 qtls of Seed will be obtained from an hectare under proper management.



Sorghum

Sorghum is known as the great millet as it is the largest as well as the most important amongst the millet group of cereals. It is one of the most important grain as well as fodder crops of low rain fall areas. Forage Sorghum is characterized by quick growth, high yield and dry matter content, leafiness, better palatability and intake as well as a material for an excellent silage.



Sorghum Variety M.P. Chari
Seed Production

Crop:

It is an old National variety grows tall upto 9-10 feet thin stemmed, highly versatile, adapting both to dry and irrigated situations. It gives two to three cutting in fertile soil with well management.


Sowing Season:

Crop meant to produce seed should be sown during June-July. Late sown crop will get caught in the later monsoon rains, besides crop will face cold season and high humidity which is highly detrimental for seed formation and seed development owing to the infections with sugar-ear disease and fungal infection with the Seeds (grain mould) besides grain kernel smut diseases. Panicle maturity should face dry climate for best quality seed production without any disease/ insect infestation. So, sowing period be selected as per the local adaptability in general.


Land requirement:

Field meant for seed production should not have been cultivated earlier neither with the same variety nor crop and shall be free from volunteer plant.


Field inspection:

A minimum of three inspection shall be made as follows:

  1. First inspection shall be made before flowering in order to verify isolation, volunteer plants and other relevant factors.

  2. The second inspection shall be made during flowering to check isolation, off-type and other relevant factors.

  3. The third inspection shall be made at maturity and prior to harvesting to verify the true nature of plants and other relevant factors.


Field Standard:

  • General requirements:

    1. Isolation:

      • Seed fields shall be isolated from the contaminants like field of other varieties of grain and dual purpose sorghum /field of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification by 200 mtrs. and the Johnson grass /other grassy sorghum by 400 mtrs.

      • Differential blooming dates for modifying isolation distances are not permitted.

  • Specific requirements:

    Off-types at any one inspection and after flowering should not exceed 0.10% whereas the head infected by Kernel smut or grain smut (Sphacelotheca Sorghi) Clinton and Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) at final inspection should not exceed 0.050%. Seed fields can, however, be certified if diseased earheads are removed and burnt and the fields show, on re-inspection, infection not more than maximum permissible levels. Only one such re-inspection is permitted.

    Note: Seed fields should be thoroughly rogued to remove plants infected by sugary disease (Sphacelia Sorghi/ergot (Claviceps. spp) so that the prescribed seed standards are met at seed stage. However, the seed fields shall not be rejected on account of presence of sugary / ergot infected heads.

Seed Standard:

Pure Seed (Minimum) 97.0%
Inert matter (maximum) 3.0%
Other crop seed (maximum) 5/kg
Weed seed (maximum) 5/kg
Other distinguishable varieties (maximum) 10/kgs
Ergot Sclerotia, Seed entirely or partially modified as Sclerotia,
broken sclerotia or ergotted seeds (maximum) 0.020% by number
Germination (minimum) 75%
Moisture maximum 12%
For vapour proof containers (maximum) 8%


Field Preparation:

Plough thoroughly making weed free field. Apply about 10-15 tonnes of well decomposed Fym or compost and plough the field again about 15 days before taking up of sowing.


Seeds and Sowing:

Seed rate 10kgs / ha
spacing 45x15cm
plant population 1.50 lakhs to 1.60 lakhs /ha
Seed rate 7.5 kgs/ha for transplanting
10 kgs/ha for irrigated direct sowing
15 kgs/ha for rainfed direct sowing
spacing 45X45 cms.
Plant Population 1.50 to 1.60 Lakhs /ha.


Seed treatment:

Seed should be invariably be treated with Carbofuran 50 S.T. @ 100 gm/kg of seed. Use castor oil as sticker.


Method of sowing:

Seed crop should invariably be sown in rows. The depth of seedling should be 3-4 cm.


Fertilizers:

The seed crop needs NPK @ 90:45:45 kgs/ha. 50% of N and the entire P & K be applied basally at the time of sowing. NPK fertilizer materials may be mixed together and the mixed fertilizer should be applied in rows, where the seeds are sown. At times, to save labour and time, Seeds and the basal NPK can be mixed together uniformly in case of sorghum M.P. Chari and applied in rows and then run a light wooden planker to cover the seeds and fertilizers under soil.


Top Dressing:

Apply the remaining quantity of 45 kgs of Nitrogen at 30-45 days after sowing, when the crop is at knee high stage.

Irrigation:

Irrigation immediately after sowing and on third day, subsequent irrigation be given depending upon the prevalent soil and climatic conditions or at least once in 10 days.


Weed control and Interculture:

Maintain the seed crop weed free. Apply Agro-weedone-48 @ 2.5 lit / ha or Atrazine a.i. 1.5 kgs/ha or propazine at 1 kg chemical 50% w.p in 1000 liters of water as pre-emergence application immediately after sowing, one should ensure sufficient soil moisture at the time of Herbicide application. Sow the seeds, irrigate and then apply Herbicide, if there is not proper soil moisture. Run kunte in between crop rows, which open up the soil crest removing some weeds, facilitating temperature and aeration for the crop root zone, besides earthing up operation.


Plant Protection:

Insect Control:Shoot fly : Treat seeds with Carbo-furan 50 ST @ 100 gm/kg of Seed.

Apply Carbofuran 3% granules @ 3 gms per meter of row or phorate 10% granules at 1.5 grams /meter row, or Disulphoton (Solvirex) 5% granules at 3 gm / meter row in the Seed furrow at the time of sowing.

Spray Monocrotophos (36 E.C) at 1 liter pr ha.


Stem borer:

  • Uproot stubbles and burn to reduce the borer population

  • Apply any one of the granules of Endosulphan 4% / Carbaryl 4% / Lindane 1% to the plant whorls, two or three times at 10 days interval starting 20 days after seedling emergence. In the absence of these granules the insecticides may be sprayed as per company recommendations.

Midge:

Spray ear heads before flowering (50% panicle emergence) with Endosulphan / Lindance at 6 days interval.


Ear head bugs:

Treat earheads with Carbaryl 10% dust with sulpher (18:2) at 20 kg/ha.


Disease Control:

Sugary disease; Mixture of Sevin and Ziram 0.2% be sprayed at weekly interval three times starting from boot leaf stage. Honey-bee affected earheads be rogued out.


Roguing:

Remove the off-types and volunteers before they shed pollen grains. Rogue out related plants such as Johnson grass, Sudan grass, forage and diseased plants infected by Kernel / grain smut and head smut from time to time.


Harvesting and threshing:

Matured and dried earheads be cut and threshed with power thresher, dried well upto 10-12 moisture level. Then the raw seeds are processed / graded with the seed processing machines and pack for storage before marketing.


Seed yield:

Sorghum M.P. Chari is a shy seeder being a forage / fodder variety. It can yield upto 15 qtls of good quality seeds per hectare.


Cowpea (Vigna Sinensis)

Cowpea is the most important leguminous fodder crop during summer and rainy seasons mainly due to its quick growing habit, high yielding ability and high protein content (18%).

Climate:Cowpea is best suited for moderately humid areas of the tropics and sub-tropics between 300 N and S and upto 1500m. elevation. Fairly tolerant to drought, but cannot withstand frosts, excessive heat and prolonged water logging. Grows well between 150 C to 270 C temperature.

Soil:Cowpea can be grown on well drained soils of heavy to sandy loams with a pH range of 5.00 to 6.5. Saline, alkali or water logged soils should be avoided. Heavy clays encourage vegetative growth with less seed production.

Seed Production

Land Preparation:Cowpea needs fine tilth and field be ploughed making weed free seed bed without volunteer plants.

Isolation:Cowpea is largely self pollinated crop, but some cross pollination by insects has been reported. Where insect activities are more based upon the season and place at least 130 mts of distance be kept between varieties though the isolation distance as per Indian Seed Act is 5 mts for C/S and 10 mts. for F/S, for maintainance of genetic purity.

Cultural Practices

  1. Time of sowing:Cowpea is not a season bound variety and can be sown in any period based upon the climatic situations from state to state as per monsoon rain pattern. Generally, June-July- August, October-December months are preferred for getting good fodder and seed yield.

  2. Source of Seed:Obtain good quality seed, certified by Seed Certification Agency.

  3. Method of Sowing:Line sowing by hand or Seed drill are preferable. The depth of seeding should be 3-4 cms.

  4. Spacing:Row to row – 45 to 60 cms and plant to plant 15-20 cms, for seed production Fodder Cowpea can be sown 30-40 cms, between rows with 6-15 cms between seed to seed to get more biomass and to suppress the weed growth. Cowpea meant for fodder can be sown as mixed crop with maize, sorghum, Bajra and suitable grass varieties.

  5. Seed rate:20 kgs / ha for seed crop and upto 40 kgs / ha for fodder crop.

  6. Manures and fertilizer:Farm yard manure may be applied @ 10 tonnes / ha and ploughed well into the soil. Apply 20:60:20 NPK per hectare. 50% of N and the entire P & K be applied basally in rows where seeds are put at the time of sowing. Remaining 50% of N be applied as Ammonium sulphate preferable as it contains sulphur too besides N which is beneficial to cowpea plant growth. Since boron, molybdenum, Copper, Zinc and Manganese are important in root nodulation, these minerals should be applied in small quantities wherever they are found deficient in the soil. Application of CCC (500 ppm) increases the seed yield considerably.

  7. Irrigation:Depending upon the climate and water holding capacity of the soil, irrigate once in 10 days.

  8. Weeding and Interculture:Keep the field weed free by running bullock drawan tools or by manual operation.

  9. Plant Protection:Cowpea meant for seed production must be protected from pests and diseases using contact and systemic pesticides. The crop meant for fodder should not be sprayed with any insecticides.

  10. Roguing:The off-type plants and diseased plants affected by blight, Cowpea mosaic and Anthracnose should be removed from the field from time to time.

  11. Harvesting and threshing:Matured pods are picked manually, dried and threshed with sticks or mechanical threshers with drum speed reduced to 400-500 rpm using suitable screen avoiding mechanical damage to the seeds.

  12. Seed Yield:Average seed yield varies from 15-20 Qtls per hectare.

Seed Standards (C/S)

Factor:
Pure Seed (minimum) 98%
Inert matter (maximum) 2%
Other crop seeds (maximum) 10/kg
Weed Seeds (maximum) 10/kg
Other distinguishable varieties (maximum) 10/kg
Germination including hard seeds (minimum) 75%
Moisture (maximum) 9.0%
Moisture for vapour proof containers (maximum) 8.0%

Fodder:

Cowpea for fodder should be cut at 50-55 days duration. Delay will reduce the protein content of plants. A yield of 300 to 350 Qtl/ha will be obtained.

Varieties:

Russian giant, UPC-5287, UPC-5286, C-30, EC-4216, IGFRI-450, HFC-42-1, Bundol-1,2.


Lucerne (medicago Sativa)

Lucerne is also called as Alfalfa, an Arabic word meaning “the best”, Queen of fodder crop or “Green Gold”. Its key nutrients are Protein, Calcium, Potassium and Phosphorous. It is a valuable leguminous Forage and Legume crop for the dry and irrigated areas of the world. It is perennial, persistant, productive, heat and drought tolerant and provides better seasonal distribution. In the summer, it grows fast suiting to fed along with green maize, jowar, bajra, teosinte, Hybrid napier, Guinea, Rhodes, signal, buffel grasses etc. and in the winter with oats, barley, mustard, turnip, carrots, sunflower and fodder beets. Lucerne, either in the green or hay form will make up the protein, calcium and other mineral deficiencies, while feeding paddy straw, wheat bhusa, dry fodder of sorghum, Bajra and Maize, which are practically devoid of digestible crude protein.

Hybrid Napier, which contains large quantities of oxalates in the young stages causes calcium deficiency in the cattle leading to kidney disorders and milk fever. When fed along with Lucerne, it counteracts such deleterious effects. Lucerne is also an excellent source of protein for the poultry and a constituent of Cattle feeds.

Climate:

Lucerne performes better in cooler and drier conditions than in cloudy, humid and wet seasons. Seedling growth favoured by high temperature of 200 to 300 C followed by lower temperature and upto 200 C. Too hot and too low temperature restrict the growth of forage. Lucerne remains dormant under drought and rejuvenance on receipt of rain or moisture. Cannot withstand water logging and high humidity in the rainy seasons.

Seed production is markedly influenced by abundant sunshine, good light intensity and moderate temperature increasing the seed yield. Bright dry weather is conductive to pollination, accelerate seed set and insect activity. Owing to the prevalence of this climate is Gujarat, Kutch Area, the Lucerne seed production is highly successful.

Toxicity:

  • Lucerne is containing 4-5% of cytoplasmic protein, a foaming agent, which causes bloat on much intake of Lucerne fodder. Silicones and turpentine oil relieves and prevents bloat. Poloxaline, the bloat preventing surfactant may be added to the concentrate mixture everyday @ 10-20 gms to prevent bloat.

  • Re-productive disorder is also a threat for the cattle consuming much quantity of Lucerne fodder as it contain Oestrogen.

  • Histamin of Oestrogen present in Lucerne fodder may cause dermatitis-inflamation of skin marked by reddening, swelling, oozing, crusting or scaling- for which the animals are to be kept in dark, feeding dry fodder for recovery.

  • Young plant of Lucerne contains Saponin of Oestrogen, which may retard growth of chicken and depress egg production. Feeding grown up plants of Lucerne and Saponin free cultivates may be selected to overcome the situations.

    However, it is emphasized that the above cases are very rare in our country as over feeding of Lucerne will never occur and the chances of the above disorders are very remote avoiding all speculations.

    Soil well drained, deep loamy soils rich in calcium phosphorous and potash having a pH of 5.5 to 8.8 is optimum. Acid soils affect root growth and nodulation, owing to fixation of available phosphorous needing of liming of such soils to improve the availability of calcium, phosphorous and to nuetralise the toxic effects of aluminum and manganese. It can also grow in sandy loam and clay loams.

Seed Production –Cultural Practices

Land Requirement Land to be used for seed production shall be free from volunteer plants and as a precaution, no FYM or other contaminating materials should be applied during the period in which the seed is produced. Land must be well drained. Acidic soils are not suitable for Lucerne seed production.

Field Inspection:A minimum of two inspections from flowering to harvest to made.

Field standard isolation (c/s)
Contaminants Distance (meters)
Field of other varieties 100
Field of same variety not confirming
To varietal purity requirements for Certification 100

Land Preparation:Field must be thoroughly ploughed, deep upto fine tilth, providing pre-soaking irrigation.

Time of Sowing:Seed crop be sown normally during October to November.

Source of Seed:Obtain quality seeds, duly approved by the seed certification agency.

Inoculation:Seed inoculation with Lucerne culture Rhizobium melilotii is necessary, if the crop is being taken for the first time in a field. Mix one kg of culture in one liter of 10% sugar solution. Mix the mixture uniformly with the seed and let the seed dry in shade. Add an equal amount of moist soil before broadcasting the seed in the field. The inoculated seed must be broadcasted within 24 hours of inoculation.

Method of sowing:The seed crop be sown in rows 50-60 cms apart. The depth of seeding should be kept at 0.75-1.25 cms.

Seed rate: 12-15 kgs per hectare for line sown crop

Fertilization: 20:60:30 kgs of NPK per hectare applied basally is sufficient for good crop. Boron deficiency can be overcome by spraying the crop with 0.2% borax. Spray of hormones such as IAA (50gm/ha) at flowering increases seed yield.

Irrigation: Irrigate the crop as and when required. One irrigation at full bloom and another at pod filling stage are essential.

Interculture keep the field weed free, especially cuscuta (Dodder) parasite at least by cutting it not allowing to form seeds at any cost to meet the seed certification standard.

Plant Protection: Controls the sucking and chewing insects by using different contact and systemic Agro Chemicals available in the market as advocated by a plant protection specialist.

Supplementary Pollination: Bee hives should be set up for tripping flowers and pollinating them.

Cutting: Stop taking cutting for fodder by the last week of February or first week of March. After this, the crop should be left for seed production. Any delay in the last cutting may lead to poor seed setting due to poor pollination in the ensuing dry and hot weather. A period of ten weeks between the last cut and seed maturity is essential.

Roguing: The Seed crop must be carefully rogued at pre flowering, flowering and maturity stage. All the off types, other crop plants and fodder plants must be removed before harvest.

Harvesting and threshing: Harvesting of the crop should be done by end of April or early May, when two thirds of ear heads have matured. Harvesting be done early in the morning to prevent shedding ear heads in the hot and dry noons and after noons. Threshing should be done on pucabrick or cement floors after drying the crop. After thorough cleaning, the seed should be further dried to optimum moisture content before storage.

Seed yield: 2-3 quintals per hectare?

Seed Standard: (c/s)

Factor:
Pure Seed (minimum) 98.0%
Inert Matter( maximum) 2.0%
Other crop seeds (maximum) 20/kgs
Total weed seeds (maximum) 20/kgs
Objectional weed seeds (max) 10/kgs
Germination including hard seeds (minimum) 80%
Moisture (maximum) 10.0%
for vapour proof containers (maximum) 7.0%

Lucerne varieties:

Co.1., T-9., LLC-3., LLC-5., Anand-2., Anand-3.

Fodder Cut: 7 to 8 cuttings are taken in an year.

Yield:

Green forage yield vary from 900-1200 Qtls/ha with modern technology and management. A healthy Lucerne crop has a potential yield upto 1500 qtls/ha/year. Population of 40 plants / m2 with irrigation and 30 plants / m2 under rainfed situation ensures maximum green yields.


Perennials Crops

http://www.agritech.tnau.ac.in/expert_system/coconut/coconut/coconut_motherpalmselection_nurserymngt.html

Flower crops

Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

/* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size :0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin- right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

Flowers Seed Production:

Flowers have always played an important role in our culture, medicine and worship rituals. Many of the flowers are essential for all situations in our life. Flowers are being used for aesthetic purposes; also it’s a symbol of love and devotion, symbol of wishing. Way to express love by giving flowers hold a special place in the minds and hearts of traditional and modern inhabitants..

Major seed producing flowers

Ageratum, Amaranthus, Aquilegia, Aster, Bellis, Calendula, Callistephus, Catananche, Celosia, Centaurea, Coreopsis, Cosmos, Dahlia, Digitalis, Dimorphotheca, Dyssodia, Echinaceapurpurea, Felicia, Gaillardia, Helianthus, Helichysum, Heliopsis, Helipterum, Ipomoea, Limonium, Matthiola, Melampodium, Osteospermum, Petumia, Primula, Rudbeckia, Tagetes, Tropaeolum, Verbena, Viola, Xeranthemum, Zinnia.

Seed production

Planting

Good seed-to-soil contact is critical for optimal germination. Seeding depth is vary depending on flower crops. To uniformly distribute seed by hand over an entire small plot, our farmers mix half the seed with slightly moistened sand or a similar inert material. The ratio of sand to seed (by volume) is about 9:1 or greater. Spread this half of the seed over the entire plot, and then repeat the entire process with the other half of the seed. This makes so called good soil-to-seed contact.

Plant seedlings in early summer so that they can develop a good root system and harden off before the first frost or freeze. Seedlings to be transplanted should have a well-developed root system but not be root bound. Seedlings will require frequent supplemental irrigation for the first 2 to 3 weeks after transplanting.

Fertilization

Based on our experience, fertilization increased yield of flower seeds by increasing the number of flowers per plant, and excess nitrogen may promote vegetative growth over flower production, thus reduced the seeds yield. Decisions about fertilization should be based on a soil test, a fertilizer with a low N, low to no P, and high K ratio is always ok for flower seed production. Some Gailladia flower crops seems to prefer limey soils.

Weed Control

Weeds are usually the major pest problem in flower seed production. They can reduce seed yield by competing with the crop for water and nutrients. The other problem is the possibility of contamination of weed seed in flower seed. But that's impossible in Jiuquan since we usually harvest flower seed by hand.

Under good growing conditions, flower crops are usually aggressive and will choke out most weed growth, except for tall, mainly single-stemmed weeds that tend to emerge from small gaps in the flower canopy.

Harvesting and Drying

In Jiuquan, we harvest flower seed heads by hand. Hand harvesting, while labor intensive, will maximize yield. Moreover, since only ripe seed heads are being harvested, plants will continuously flower throughout the growing season, thereby maximizing seed production.

Harvested seed must be dried before they are cleaned, and just as important, dried relatively quickly . If the plant material remains moist too long, seed will start to decay. The seeds can be spread on a clean, hard surface and allowed to dry for a few days before cleaning.

Seed Cleaning

Cleaning flower seed has proven to be a challenge for our farmers. Because a lot of flower crop seeds are of fluffy nature, removing unwanted plant parts is difficult. It needs a lot of labor work to cleaning the fluffy flower seed.

Seed Testing

Purity and germination tests is done after seed drying and cleaning. If you want, we can also make the viability test. If you want the seed is certified by some third-party certification agency, it will enhance its value.


Vegetables

Seed production on Cole crops

Cole crops are temperate vegetables also known as European vegetables requiring temperate climate especially during a specific stage of their growth for successful seed production. During this period that these vegetables must have the vernalization requirement a pre condition necessary for breaking the dormancy of the plant thus stimulating the conversion of the vegetative phase into the reproductive phase i.e., induction of bolting and flowering.

All Cole crops are hardy and thrive best under condition of cool climate. They are grown in the plain during winter season and can be cultivated throughout the year in the hill regions of the country.

Origin:

All crops of this group have originated from single progenitor wild cliff cabbage known as Cole worts (Brassica oleraceae var sylvistris.) as a result of mutation. All the Cole crops belong to the same genus brassica and most of them to the same species.

Cole crops are Mediterranean in origin and are spread all over European and have been cultivated continuously since 2500 BC. Curly Kale, Cabbage, Knol kohl were the first known cultivated types and other were cultivated in later centuries.

Cauliflower became widely known in 18th century and Brussels sprouts in the 19th century. In the 30’s of the 20th century, another form ‘Sprouting Broccoli’ in USA. Now Cole crops are grown in every corner of the world.

Different types of Cole crops

Sl. Crops Botanical Name Chromosome number (n) Plant parts used
1. Cabbage Brassica oleraceae (L) var. capitata 9 Heads
2. Cauliflower Brassica oleraceae (L) var. botrytis.L. 9 Curd
3. Knol Kohl Brassica oleraceae (L) var. gongylodes. L. 9 Swollen stem
4. Brussels sprouts Brassica oleraceae (L) var. gemnifera 9 Sprouts (Swollen axillary buds)
5. Sprouting broccoli Brassica oleraceae (L) var. italica 9 Flower heads
6. Kale Brassica oleraceae (L) var. acephala 9 Top leaves

Constraints for seed production:

  • Problems of satisfactory isolation due to cross-pollination by insects.

  • Crops have to be carried over in to the second season

  • Plant attains morphological shape and size during the additional growing period, which is not known to majority of the seed growers.

Major seed production areas in the world.

  1. North western Europe: Eastern and South Eastern, UK, Holland, Western Denmark

  2. Central Europe: Southern Sweden, Eastern Denmark, North Germany, Switzerland

  3. Mediterranean area: Southern France, Southern Italy

  4. North America and Canada: Western USA (Pacific North West), Canada (British Columbia)

  5. California.

Seed production areas in India:

  1. Srinagar valley (J&K)

  2. Upper Kullu valley (Himachal Pradesh)

  3. Lahaus valley (Himachal Pradesh)

  4. Kalpa valley, Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh)

  5. Saproon valley, Solan (Himachal Pradesh)

  6. Kumaon hills (Uttar Pradesh)

  7. Kalimpong – Darjeeling hills (West Bengal)

  8. Nilgiris (South India)

In 1942-43 for the first time imperial Government encouraged the seed production of European type of vegetable at Quetta in Baluchistan. At about the same time initial trials on seed production were also initiated in Kashmir, Katrain (Kullu valley) (Verma and Sharma, 1999)

Inflorescence:

After leafy growth ceases, as for example the completed growth of the head of the cabbage, or the sprouts of Brussels sprouts, the flowering stem elongates. It is characterized by numerous branches (mostly from a main stem), small leaves, and numerous bright yellow or occasionally white flowers. The flowers of all Cruciferae have four petals, l/2 to 1 inch long, that appear to form a cross, hence the name Cruciferae (cross bearing).

The flowers are typical of crucifers’ family having 4 petals, 6 stamens, of which 2 are short and 2 carpels with superior ovary. The flowers are attached with the stalk with a short pedicel. The anthesis of flowers depends on temperature and flowers open mainly during hotter part of the day. The flower opens during the morning, the anthers a few hours later, so the flower is slightly protogynous. The flowers are highly attractive to pollinating insects for both nectar and pollen. When the seed-producing acreage is large, beekeepers nearby frequently harvest a crop of excellent honey. The stigma of Brsassica spp. is receptive even 5 days before and 4 days after anthesis. The period from pollination to fertilization generally takes 24-28 hours, depending on temperature. Higher temperature during daytime is more harm full for fertilization and this causes pollen sterility. The pod maturity or harvest of pods may require 50-90 days from the date of flowering. The seeds are small, globular, smooth and dark brown in colour. The Cole crops are highly cross-pollinated the percentage of cross-pollination varies with the type of crops. The Cole crops are highly cross-pollinated as characterized by both self-incompatibility and protogyny. The self-incompatibility is of sporophytic type, and it is using for the hybrid seed production program, self-pollination of Brassica resulted in decreased yields in subsequent generations.

Percent of cross pollination in Cole crops.

Crop Cross percentage
Cabbage 73%
Cauliflower 70%
Knol kohl 91%
Sprouting broccoli 95%
Brussels sprouts 72%
Kale 83%

Flowering season and Vernalization temperature

Sl.No. Crop Flowering season Vernalization
1. Cabbage March - May 4.4-100C
2. Cauliflower February- April 10-160C
3. Knol kohl March - May 4-100C
4. Sprouting broccoli February- April 10-150C
5. Brussels sprouts April-May 2.2-100C
6. Kale March- April 4-80C

The blossom forms a siliqua, incorrectly but commonly called a pod.

Vernalization

Vernalization of Brassica oleraceae is performed on mature vegetative plants, which are uprooted in autumn from the fields, potted and over wintered in a greenhouse at temperatures between 5-10°C. The cabbages are decapitated (±3 cm of head remains). Other Brassicas are defoliated, leaving ±6 leaves, to prevent rotting. Early cabbages are decapitated in the field, and the new growing shoots are cut and rooted. The cuttings are placed in a cooling compartment for 1 day, to desiccate the cutting surface. No leaves are removed, to avoid the creation of fresh tissue wounds. The cuttings are planted in trays with soil and covered with cheesecloth. After roots are formed, the cuttings are potted. The plants from these rooted cuttings over winter.

Isolation

In brassica there are two distinct groups which do not intercross with each other, Brassica oleraceae with all its botanical varieties and wild allies in one group and B. rape, B.junceae, B, chinensis, etc., from another group.

CAULIFLOWER

India is the largest producer of Cauliflower in the world (FAO, 2001). With the development of tropical types in Cauliflower in addition to the temperate type, it has now become possible to grow this vegetable almost throughout the year particularly in the northern and central part of India. Cauliflower is thought to have been domesticated in the Mediterranean region since the greatest range of variability in type of brassica oleraceae. It became more commonly cultivated in the beginning of the 18th century. Indian or tropical cauliflower, which are early maturity and wider adaptability to hot and humid weather conditions. Temperate types are known as ‘Snow ball’ or late cauliflower. Cauliflower is a monogenic species whose genomic constitute is C and n=9.

Varieties are very specific to the season when the curds are formed; they are two major groups of cauliflower;

  1. Early or Indian cauliflower: are annual types

  2. Late or Snow ball types: biennial types. They require low temperature for transition to generative phase i.e., curd initiation stage. Their behavior to curding is like cabbage for transition to reproductive stage.

Early group is further divided into three maturity groups on the basis of period of their curd availability. I, II, III require high temperature for growth and curd formation where as late group produces curds at low temperature.

Climate:

Requires cool, moist climate for seed production. The optimum monthly average temperature is 15 to 20 C. the early varieties, however, require high temperature and longer day lengths. It is less tolerant to extreme high or low temperatures, or strong winds. It is also susceptible to cold injury after the curds have appeared. Excessive rains and snowfall, after curd formation, cause rotting in curds. Periods of low temperature are not essential, but cool conditions are required. Therefore, these conditions must be given due consideration in selecting suitable areas for seed production. In India, the seed production of early and mid-season varieties can be done in the plains. However, the seed of late varieties can only be produced in temperate regions of the country. Lately, Himachal Pradesh has emerged as the major producer of quality cauliflower seed of late varieties.

Land Requirements:

  • Land to be used for seed production shall be free of volunteer plants.

  • The soil of selected field should be deep, fertile, well-supplied with organic matter with a pH value 5.5

  • The field should be well drained.

Isolation Requirements:

Cauliflower is mainly cross-pollinated. Pollination is mainly done by bees. The seed fields must be separated from fields of other varieties, fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements of certification, and from all their kinds of Cole crops, at least by 1600 meters for foundation seed class, and by 1000 meters for certified seed class.

Method of Varietal Seed Production:

  1. In situ method (seed to seed method)

  2. Transplanting method (head to seed method)

For seed production, seed to seed method is recommended since the head to seed method in India has not been very successful. In seed to seed method (in situ method) the crop is allowed to over-winter and produce seed in the original position, where they are first planted in the seedlings stage. Main season and late varieties (seed production in hills)

Time of sowing and transplanting:

In the hills, the sowing time of cauliflower should be so adjusted that the plants put up the maximum leafy growth by the fifteenth of December, when the temperature goes down and the plants become almost dormant. The last week of August is the optimum sowing time for the crop. The seed is sown in a nursery. Transplanting of seedlings should be completed by the end of September. The mean temperature of 6.5 to 11 C during February to March is very conducive to curd formation, which is completed by the first fortnight of March.

Early sowing in June to July result in curd formation during October to November. The curds, being very susceptible to cold injury, rot during winter and hence fail to flower the following summer. If sown late, the crop starts curd formation late in the spring and consequently flowering is delayed. It starts when the temperature is high and humidity is low, with the results that pollination and setting of seed is not normal.

Method of sowing in nursery:

Seeds may be sown on raised nursery beds (15 to 20 cm high from the ground), in rows 5 cm apart. Cover the seeds with fine leaf mould and water with a sprinkler. Twenty-five nursery beds of 2 to 2.5 meters long and 1 to 1.25 meters wide will raise enough seedlings to plant one hectare. A spray of four to five handfuls of ammonium sulphate or C.A.N. dissolved in 30 to 35 liters of water at 10 to 15 days after germination will be helpful in producing healthy and vigorous seedlings. Wash out the fertilizer immediately by spraying simple water. Thin sowing should be done to avoid “damping-off” disease.

Source of seed: Obtain breeder’s /foundation seed from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed rate: Mid season and late varieties – 375 to 400 g /ha.

Preparation of land for transplanting: The field should be prepared to fine tilth by deep ploughing, three to four harrowing followed by leveling.

Fertilization:

The cauliflower seed crop required heavy manuring as it removes large quantities of major nutrients from the soil. For best results apply 50 to 60 tones of farmyard manure at the time of land preparation. Normally 25 to 30 tones of farmyard manure is applied per hectare due to limited availability of farmyard manure in hills. Apply 200 to 300 kg superphosphate and 100 kg potassium sulphate sufficiently before sulphate, or calcium ammonium nitrate, during growing period (one application during October to November, another in February to March is essential). Still higher doses of nitrogen may be applied it deemed necessary. Cultural practices determine greatly the seed yield and among the various inputs, nitrogen and phosphorus application have been reported to exert a great influence on the seed yield of Cauliflower.

A cauliflower crop often shows boron and molybdenum deficiency symptoms when grown either on an alkaline or highly acidic soil, or two sprays with 0.3 per cent borax applied on the seedlings may correct the boron deficiency. Molybdenum deficiency symptoms occur in highly acidic soils and can be corrected by liming, or application of about 1 to 1.5 kg per hectare of sodium molybdate. Spraying of 150 ppm Ethrel at the time of emergence of flowering stalks increase seed yield.

Transplanting:

Transplant the seedlings when 12 to 15 cm long, preferably at evening time, and irrigate immediately afterwards.

Spacing:

Row to row 60 to 90 cm and
Plant to plant 45 to 60 cm.

Irrigation:

Irrigate the field according to the soil requirements and climatic conditions. A crop after transplanting may need irrigation twice a week and later once a week. At later stages, irrigation may be given if there is a long gap between rains. Adequate moisture supply during flowering and seed maturation are necessary to obtain high yields.

Intercultural:

Frequent shallow cultivation should be given to the soil to kill weeds and provide soil mulch. Earthing-up of plants four to five weeks after transplanting is highly desirable.

The seed production is dependent upon curd formation and its bolting. Bolting further depends on the curd type i.e., degree of compactness of the curd. The loose curd bolts easily while compact curds takes more time to bolt. To facilitate bolting, different curd- cutting methods like scooping, half curd cutting and curd pruning are recommended. These practices have impact on branching, seed yield and seed quality.

Scooping (Single Scoop): Approximately half of the curd was removed from the center with the help of a sharp knife.

Curd pruning: The outermost curdlets were pruned 5cms, away from the center.

Half- curd removal: The curd was cut vertically into two parts from the middle and one of them was removed leaving half portion of the curd intact for seed production.

Roguing:

Selection of curds is done when the curds are well developed. Off-type plants, and those forming poor curds, should be removed at this stage. Subsequent roguings for off-types, and diseased plants affected by blackleg, black rot, leaf spot and phyllody should be done from time to time as required.

The developmental process in Cauliflower is regulated by temperature. Low temperature stimulates curd induction at the end of a juvenile phase and further development of the curd, stalk, flower and seed proceed sequentially at rates determined by prevailing temperatures. Seed production in Cauliflower is difficult because of its seasonality, which restrict field production both in the tropics and temperate regions. In tropics, seeds are produced in the cool season or at high altitude where temperatures are relatively low.

Harvesting and Threshing:

Harvesting is done when pods brown. Too ripe pods dehisce. Seed should not crush or split when rubbed between the hands. The harvesting maybe done in two lots. Generally the early plants are harvested first, when about 60 to 70 percent of the pods turns brown and the rest of the crop changes to yellowish-brown. After harvesting it is piled up for curing. After four to five days it is turned upside down and allowed to cure for another four to five days in the same way. It is then threshed with sticks and sifted with hand sifters. After thorough drying of seed in the sun (seven percent moisture content) it is cleaned and stored.

Seed Yield: Average seed yield varies from 250 to 400 kg per hectare

CABBAGE

Cabbage is one of the important vegetables grown on a large scale in India, which is formed by the development of densely overlapped leaves around the growing point. Cauliflower is mostly grown in North India whereas cabbage is popular in the south and South Eastern parts on India. Cabbage has been under cultivation since 2500 BC to 2000 BC. It is a biennial in nature having 2 specific periods of growth namely vegetative and reproductive phases to complete its life cycle. In the first season crop remains in the vegetative phase characterized by the formation of heads where as the reproductive phase is completed in the second season only after getting the necessary stimuli of low temperature of 4.40C- 100C for about 60 days to break the dormancy of the heads. Cabbage is commonly used fresh as salad, Cole slaw, boiled vegetable cooked in curries and processed.

Floral biology of cabbage:

Cabbage flowers are borne in terminal raceme, flowers are yellow in colour. They are hypogynous having slender pedicels. The flowers are perfect, regular with 4 sepals, 4 petals, 6 stamens, ovary two celled with several ovules per cell. Cabbage starts flowering in the month of February- march or earlier. The stigma remains receptive for about 5 days before and 4 days after anthesis. Cabbage fruits is siliqua, having a thin partition dividing it lengthwise, along with it dehisce when fully mature and dry. Pod contains about 12-20 seeds.

Cultivated forms of cabbage:

White cabbage : Brassica oleraceae Var. Capitata L.Falba
Red cabbage : Brassica oleraceae Var. Capitata L.frubra
Savoy cabbage : Brassica oleraceae Var. sabauda L.
Based on maturity time.

Earlyseason: it takes 60-70 days for maturity.

Golden acre, Pride of India, Copenhagen market and Early drumhead.

Mid- season: cabbage comes to harvest at 80-90 days.

All head early, Wisconsin, All green september.

Late season: Require long winter season comes to harvest at 90-120 days

Pusa drum head, Indian eclipse, Danish ball head, Late flat and Dutch sure head.

Based on shape of heads.

Round head or Ball Head type (early): Golden Acre, Pride of India, Copenhagen Market, Mimmothi, Rock red and express.

Flat head or Drumhead type (Late): Pusa drumhead.
Conical head (early to mid season): Jersy wake field
Savoy type (late varieties): Chieftain

Climate:

Cabbage thrives in a relatively cool, moist climate with moderate to heavy rainfall, well distributed during the growing season. It can withstand frost in the head stage, but otherwise freezing temperatures are destructive. It requires a dormant period of cool temperature to bolt and initiate seed stalks and flowers. Cool temperatures, however, are effective only after stem diameter is one cm, at least. In temperate climates, this occurs during the winter after the first seasons growth. Flowering and seed production follow in the second year. Headed plants form seed stalks when exposed to mean temperature of about 5C for six to eight weeks. As little as two weeks of such temperature suffice with immature plants. In India, seed production of cabbage is possible only in hill areas.

Methods of Seed Production:

Being a biennial, the cabbage requires two seasons to produce seed. In the first season the heads are produce, and in the following season seed production follows. The seed crop can be left in situ or transplanted during autumn. In situ method is usually followed for certified seed production and the latter for nucleus production.

In the in situ method, the crop is allowed to over-winter and produce seed in their original position, that is, where they are first planted in the seedling stage. In the transplanting method, the mature plants are uprooted. After removing whorls the plants are immediately reset in a well- prepared new field, in such a way that the whole stem below the head goes underground with the head resting just above the surface.

Three methods have been devised to produce seed of cabbage.

  • Stump Method:

    In this method, when the crop in the first season is fully mature, the heads are examined for trueness to type. The plants with off-type heads are removed. Then heads are cut just below the base by means of a sharp knife, keeping the stem with outer whorl of leaves intact. The beheaded portion of the plant is called “stump”. The heads are marketed and the stumps either are left in situ, or replanted in the second season i.e., during autumn. The following spring, after the dormancy is broken, the buds sprout from the axils of all the leaves and leaf scars.

    Advantages

    1. Gives extra income by way of sale of heads.

    2. The crop matures twelve to fifteen days earlier than the head intact method.

    3. Seed yield is slightly increased.

    Disadvantages:

    1. In this method, flowering shoots are decumbent and require very heavy staking, otherwise they breakdown very easily while inter culturing or spraying.

  • Stump with Central Core Intact Method

    In this method, when the crop is fully mature in the first season. The heads are examined for trueness to type. Plants with off-type. Plants with off-type heads are removed and rejected. Then the heads are chopped on all sides with downward perpendicular cuts in such a way that the central core is not damaged. This is an improvement over stump method in that the shoots arising from the main stem are not decumbent. During the last week of February and until 15th March when the heads start bursting, two vertical cross-cuts are given to the head, taking care that the central growing point is not injured. In the absence of such cuts, the heads burst out irregularly and sometimes the growing tip is broken. The operation is completed by going around the field twice or thrice during this period.

    Advantages:

    1. Shoots arising from the main stem are not decumbent, hence very heavy staking is not required.

    2. Seed yield is increased.

    Disadvantages:

    1. The chopped heads cannot be marketed.

  • Head Intact Method:

    In this method, when the crop is fully mature in the first season the heads are examined for trueness to type. The plants with off-type heads are removed from the field. The head is kept intact and only a cross-cut is given to facilitate the emergence of a stalk.

    Advantages:

    1. The removal of heads (stump method) or chopping of heads on all sides (central core intact method) is not required. This saves time and labour.

    2. Very heavy staking is not required.

    Disadvantages;

    1. The seed yield is slightly low as compared to stump, or stump with central core intact method.

  • Cultural Practices:

    Time of Sowing and transplanting:

    The sowing time of different varieties should be so adjusted as to complete head formation by the end of October or first week of November, by which time the mean temperature falls to 100C or below; at this temperature the heads stand best for over-wintering.


    Early varieties like ‘Golden Acre’ should be sown from 10th to 25th July and transplanted when the seedlings are three to four weeks old, during the second fortnight of August. This sowing time must be strictly adhered to, as the crop from the early sowings have matured heads during September and starts pre winter bursting and bolting. It is thus liable to be much affected by frost and snow during winter. Moreover, due to high mean temperatures of September (20 0C) the heads get infected with bacterial stock rot, which sometimes is very severe. The late crop, planted during September does not form heads and bolts directly during spring, and the seed grower is not able to ascertain purity of the crop.


    Medium-late varieties like burpee’s Sure Head, and late varieties like Drum Head, which take about 2 1/3 to 3 months to produce mature heads, should be sown during the second and first fortnight of June respectively, and transplanting finished by the first week of August. The mean temperatures 22.5C, 20C and 14C of August, September and October respectively, afford optimum requirements for growth and head formation. The late transplanted crop starts head formation during spring and continues up to June and usually does not produce seed stalks (Singh., 1959).

    Method of sowing nursery:

    The seeds are sown in raised nursery beds in a manner similar to that of cauliflower.

    Source of seed and seed rate: Obtain breeder’s/foundation seed from source approved by a seed certification agency. Mid season and late varieties – 375 to 400 gm per hectare and early varieties 600-750 gm per hectare.

    Preparation of land for transplanting: Prepare the land to a fine tilth by repeated ploughing and harrowing, followed by leveling.

    Fertilization:

    Cabbage grows satisfactorily only when the supply of organic nitrogen is liberal. For best results apply 50 to 60 tones of farmyard manure per hectare, at the time of land preparation. Since the supply of farmyard manure is very limited in the hills, only 25 to 30 tones farmyard manure per hectare, is usually applied. Apply 200 to 300 kg superphosphate and 90 kg of muriate of potash by drilling. Top-dress two doses of 75 to 100 kg ammonium sulphate at intervals of two to three weeks after transplanting the seedling. Give another dose of 200 to 250 kg ammonium sulphate as surface application at the time of seed stalk emergence during March.

    Transplanting: Three to four weeks old seedlings are transplanted. Transplanting should preferably be done in the evening and the field irrigated immediately afterwards.

    Spacing:
    Late varieties - 60 x 60 cm
    Medium varieties - 60 x 45 cm
    Early varieties - 45 x 45 cm

    Irrigation: Cabbage requires a continuous supply of moisture. Irrigate the crop as frequently as required. Heavy irrigation should, however, be avoided when the heads have formed. A sudden heavy irrigation after a dry spell may cause bursting of heads

    Hoeing and weeding:

    At least three weedings and hoeings till the end of October are essential. One weeding and earthing up during November and December and the second during March, when seed stalks have emerged, control weeds and also help in proper drainage during winter and thereafter.

    Roguing:

    • The first rouging is done at the time of handling the mature heads.

    • The Second roguing is done before the heads start bursting. The loose-leaved poorly heading plants, and those having a long stem and heavy frame, must be rogued out at this state. It is highly undesirable to keep such poor plants in the seed plots.

    Harvesting and Threshing:

    Cabbage starts seed stalk elongation from 10-20th March when the mean temperature rises to 10-13 C. Flowering and pod formation starts during the first week of April at mean temperature of 13-18.5C. From 15th April to 15th May, the crop is in full flush of flowering and fruiting. The ripening of pods commences by 15th June to 20th June and the harvesting continues up to second week of July. At mean temperatures below 20C during June and July, the maturity of crop is delayed at least by a fortnight and the harvesting may continue up to July end. To avoid shattering of seeds, the whole crop is harvested in two or three lots with sickles. Generally, the early plants are harvested first and when the pod colour in about 60-70 per cent of the rest of the crop changes to yellowish-brown it is harvested completely and piled up for curing. After 4-5 days, it is turned upside down and allowed to cure for another 4-5 days, in the same way. It is then threshed with sticks and sifted with hand sifters. After thoroughly drying the seeds they are cleaned and stored.

    Seed yield: 500 to 650 kg per hectare

    Knol-Khol

    Knol khol was first described in 18th century as another cabbage of western Europe. Knol-khol is characterized by formation of turnip like knobs, which is used for human consumption before it becomes tough and fibrous. This knobs arises from the thickening of the stem tissues above the cotyledons.

    Time of Sowing and transplanting:

    The seed is sown in the nursery from seventh to fifteenth August the seedlings are planted in the field during the first fortnight of September and the operation may continue up to the end of the third week the crops planted during October and later, fail to form good knobs.

    Preparation of Land:

    For transplanting Prepare the field well by ploughing and three to four harrowings before the seedlings are set in the field.

    Seed Rate:

    Main season and late varieties – 375 to 400 gm per hectare and early varieties 600-750 gm per hectare

    Sowing of Seeds in Nursery:

    The seeds are sown in raised nursery beds in a manner similar to that of cauliflower.

    Fertilization:

    Apply 20- 25 tones of farmyard manure per hectare at the time of preparation of field apply 100 to 150 kg superphosphate per hectare at the time of land preparation. Top-dress 100-150kg ammonium sulphate per hectare after first weeing. Top-dress another dose of 100-150 kg ammonium sulphate per hectare during spring when the crop recommences growth after over wintering. Extra application of nitrogen may be done before flowering, if necessary.

    Transplanting:

    Three to four week old seedlings are transplanted. Transplanting should preferably be done in the evening and the field irrigated immediately afterwards.

    Spacing:
    Row to row - 60 cm
    Plant to Plant - 45 cm

    Intercultural:

    One hoeing and weeding during September to October, and one weeding and earthing-up during November to December is required. Keep the crop clean till the spring when one more hoeing and earthing -up is done (Verma and Sharma, 1999)

    Roguing:

    • Selection of Knobs is done during February to March when the knobs are well developed only true-to-type plants are retained. Off-types, or diseased plants, are removed.

    • Subsequent roguing is done at the flowering stage. The off-type plants observed at the flowering stage, are usually determined by the extent of branching of the flowering shoots. the higher the production of fully branched plants, the greater is the seed yield. Therefore, care is necessary in nucleus seed production to select the right type of plants at flowering stage. Remove any undesirable plants.

    • Subsequent roguing for off-types, diseased plants affected by diseases such as phyllody, black-leg, black rot, soft rot or leaf spot should be done from time to time as required.

    BRUSSELS SPROUTS

    Brussels sprouts is a popular vegetables in European countries which gained importance in the \nineteenth century. The sprouts are the edible part of the plant, which are used, in different preparation. The sprouts are the buds in the axils of the leaves, which developed into miniature cabbage like heads. In India Brussels sprouts as not been common among the people. Like all other cole crops, it has been originated in the Mediterranean region from wild cabbage. It is a temperate vegetable requiring vernalization for transformation to the generative phase. Being biennial in nature, its seed production is possible in temperate regions, which are normally suitable for cabbage and knol-khol seed rising.

    Floral biology:

    Transition from vegetative to reproductive occurs only when it is exposed to low temperature of 2.22 – 100C for 42-56 days. The juvenile phase is complete in about 90 days. The flowers stalk arise from the terminal growing point and also from sum of the upper sprouts. The flowering takes place from the April to May. The flowers are typical of crucifers family having 4 petals 6 stamens and superior ovary. The anthesis of flowers depends on temperature and open mainly during hotter part of the day. Honeybees are the usual pollinating agents.

    Cultivars:

    Dwarf cultivars:

    Improved Long Island, Early Morn, Dwarf Improved, Frontier Zwerg and Kvik.

    Tall cultivars:

    Eveshan rapid, Wilhelmsburg, Hilds ideal, Red vein, Amager and De Rosny Polarstjernen

    Climate:

    Brussels sprouts does well in cool and humid climate. This can be grown in regions with moderately severe winters. Although yields are higher in regions with cool mild summer and mild winters.

    Plants at this stage of 30 leaves, the apex increases in size and becomes globular in shape due to the formation of sessile leaves and becomes globular in shape due to the accumulation of nutrients. At this stage the plant is sexually mature to receive the vernalization stimulus. On exposure to low temperature at this stage, the flower primordial will develop. As soon as temperature starts rising in spring, these plants bolt and produce flowers. Day length does not have any effect on this process. The sprouts become loose at higher temperature in autumn.

    Soil:

    The soil should be moisture retentive and well supplied with organic matter. Waterlogged soil should not be used for seed crop, which results in poor and stunted growth of the crop.

    Fertilization:

    Brussels sprouts need heavy intake of nutrients for the formation of firm sprouts of good quality, an even growth ism important. The recommended fertilize dosage is 200:80:100 kg NPK/ha. Nitrogen is applied in 4 equal split doses, first at the field preparation along with P and K, second 30 days after transplanting and the third at initiation of sprouts and the last at the time of bolting.

    Spacing:

    Varieties with large leaves and larger sprouts are spaced widely at a spacing of 90 x 90 cm, whereas those with smaller leaves and smaller sprouts required a spacing of 60 x 60 cm or 60 x 45 cm. About 500-600 g of seed is sufficient to produce seedlings for 1 ha.

    Sowing And Transplanting:

    The optimum time for sowing in the hills is second week of July and transplanting should be done by the end of August for seed crop.

    Strong winds during flowering and seed maturity stage do greast damage due to lodging because of the more height of the plant. The staking of plants is needed under such conditions.

    Roguing:

    • Vegetative / pre marketable stage

    • Full grown stage

    • Bolting and pre-flowering stage

    Seed yield:300-400 kg/ha.

    Sprouting Broccoli

    Sprouting broccoli is less important in India and is grown by some people in the kitchen garden. It has been originated in Italy, as the name broccoli as been derived from Italian world ‘brocco’ refers to development of young shoots, which have been used as vegetables. Inspite of morphological resemblance with cauliflower and heading broccoli, the sprouting broccoli differs from these in plant habit and in producing green heads consisting of green buds and thick, fleshy flower stalks.

    Floral biology

    The central growing point along with the axillary buds clusters form thick, fleshy flower stem, which is the actual consuming parts in broccoli. The length of the flower stem is small and the flower primordia develops into normal buds, which are united into a cluster, commonly called as head. Heads of broccoli becomes loose quickly and the buds start opening. The process of flowering starts at low temperature but pollination and seed setting will not occur until the average daily temperature goes above 150C. Flowering starts from down upwards in all the branches, first at the main axis. The flowering is even and the whole crop flowers simultaneously. Between 20-300 C day temperature, flowering, pollination and seed setting go on satisfactorily. Higher temperatures result in pollen sterility and low seed setting.

    Climate:

    It is not much sensitive to hot weather. A period of comparatively low temperature is not as essential for the production of sprouting broccoli seeds as it is for cabbage. Above mean temperature of 200C, the flower buds open prematurely and the bud cluster become loose quickly, and results in undesirable leafiness in the heads. Sprouting broccoli is hardy and exhibits resistance to fairly heavy frosts depending on the variety and the developmental stages of the plant.

    The annual varieties are more sensitive to frost in the vegetative stage than the biennial ones. But, in the bud production stage even a light spell of frost does a considerable damage resulting freezing, browning and ultimately rotting of bud clusters.

    There are two types of seed production:

    1. Annuals: are early whose seed can be produced in tropical / subtropical

    2. Biennials: late in maturity although require same climatic conditions as are required by other Cole crops.

    The period from sowing to flowering is shorter, so, they are sown slightly later than Cauliflower. Growing biennial type for seed is easier as they can withstand frost better in vegetative stage and over winter in the field. The annual types are not hardy and are susceptible to frost hence, the seed production is not possible in hills.

    Method of seed production is exactly same as in Cauliflower since the transplanting method is not successful because there is no rest period between the sprouts/curd stage and flowering in broccoli and cauliflower. The transplanted allow to grow, over winter, flower and produce the seed at the same place i.e., in-situ method.

    Manures and fertilizers:
    10-15 tons FYM/ha
    200:100:100 NPK kg/ha.

    Nitrogen is applied in four splits, one is along with the P and K as basal dose, second after 25-30 days after transplanting, third 30 days after second application and last application before flowering.

    Spacing:
    Annual or Early varieties: 45 x 45 cm
    Biennial or Late varieties: 60 x 45 cm
    45 x 45 cm

    Seed rate:
    Annual or early varieties: 600-750 g/ha
    Biennial or late varieties: 500-600 g/ha

    Time of sowing should be adjusted in such a way that he heads are formed only after the danger of frost or snowfall is over. As the period from sowing to heads formation is shorter than cauliflower, sprouting broccoli should be sown or transplanted slightly later. Sowing of seed is done in third weak of October so that plants are well established to withstand frost or snowfall during winter. Being shallow rooted like other Cole crops, it needs shallow cultivation to check the weeds at the initial stage.

    It can also produce seeds in the plains of Northern India, as seeding characters is similar to mid-season group of cauliflower. Since, it requires same temperature range for growth, head formation, flowering and seed setting and is not much sensitive to hot climate. Flowering period is shorter than Cabbage but equivalent to cauliflower. The adverse climatic conditions affect, flowering, pollination, fertilization and seed setting.

    Rouging:

    1. Marketable stage

    2. Marketable size

    3. Bolting and pre flowering stage

    Harvesting:

    Generally the seed ripen in June, when 70% of the pods have turned brown and the rest of the crops change to yellow brown. Harvesting should be done preferably in morning hours to avoid shattering.

    Seed yield: 500-600 kg/ha

    KALES

    Kales is of not much importance in India except grown by amateur kitchen gardeners. Like other Cole crops this has originated from wild Cabbage through mutation. There are different sub varieties, which bear a resette of leaves at the top of the stem.

    1. Subvar. Laciniata: curly kales having finely curled foliage.

    2. Subvar. Plana: smooth leafed kales

    3. Subvar.millecapitata: thousand head kales with sprouted axillary buds forming loose leafy rosette

    4. Subvar. Palmifolia; tree kales having more plant height up to 2 m.

    5. Subvar. Medullosa; tree kales marrow stem kales with long swollen stem.

    It is the curly kale that is grown for human consumption and is one of the earliest forms of Cole crops cultivated by the Greeks as early as 600BC. The top leafy rosette or individual leaves are harvested for vegetables. The other types of kales are used as fodder for livestock. For vegetable purpose kales should be grown at temperature around 18-200C as there is likelihood of the plants going to flower early. The flowers of kales are white and they retain their edibility even at the bolting stage.

    Climate

    For seed production kales behave as biennial in that it requires low temperature for vernalization. Kale is hardiest of Cole crops. Adult plants of hardy varieties can tolerate temperature from –100C to –150C. Freezing improves the quality of the leaves and even making edible the older leaves which have stringy midrib.

    Seed production

    The seeds of kales can be produced in a manner similar to Brussels sprout. The crop continues making rosette of leaves at the top of stem till late winters. If the rise of temperature they start bolting and thus there is no dormant stage while transition in from vegetative to reproductive phase. Hence the replanted methods Is not successful and the seed is produced by insitu method, allowing the plants to grow, over winter, flower and produce seed at the same place.

    Manures and fertilizers

    200:80:100 NPK kg/ha. Nitrogen is applied in 4 equal split doses at different stages of crop at the final field preparation before transplanting, 25-30 days after transplanting, 50-60 days after transplanting and at the bolting.

    Spacing

    1. For dwarf: 60x60 cm, 60x45 cm

    2. For medium tall: 75x60, 75x45 cm

    3. For tall: 90x60 cm

    Seed rate
    For dwarf: 500-750 g/ha
    For medium tall: 400-500g/ha
    For tall: 350-400g/ha.

    Kales are transplanted late in the field during rainy season (Aug-Sept) like other Cole crops, so that the plants grow and over winter during the winter, flower in April and mature in June before the onset of rains. As the first season growth is confined to the production of only the leaves that is not particular regarding adherence to the proper time schedule as is the case with other Cole and root crops for the production of respective economic parts. Late planting results in reduced seed yield due to smaller plants size. Seedlings for transplanting are raised by sowing the seed 4-5 weeks ahead for transplanting.

    Before the start of the winter, the plant should be earthen up to give them support. Bolting starts in March and flowering occurs in April. The bolting takes place in response to low temperature during the winter. The inflorescence is like other Cole crops excluding cauliflower and sprouting broccoli but resembles more closely to Brussels sprouts and knol-khol where in it develops directly from the rosette of leaves at the terminal end of the stem. Flowering and seed setting take place satisfactorily between 200 and 300 C. Pollen sterility and low seed setting result at high temperature.

    Harvesting: the crop is harvested when 70% pods have changed to yellow but before they are dried.

    Seed yield: 300-400kg/ha.

    Hybrid seed production in Brassica oleraceae

    Because of Self-incompatibility it is a barrier to effective self-fertilization, under field conditions, out crossing is the rule and any given open pollinated variety is highly heterozygous. Inbreeding through bud pollination, usually results in complete loss of vigour in competition for survival.

    Self-incompatibility:

    The mechanism providing individual isolation is self-incompatibility, which means that pollen of a given plant will not fertilize the ovules of that plant, but is fully effective in fertilizing the ovules of most other plants of the same variety.

    Sporophytic incompatibility is the operating system in Brassica for the production of F1 seeds. This method involves two cross compatible lines, each of them are highly self-incompatible. The lines are individually propagated by bud pollination or open pollination at elevated temperatures first by selfing and then by sib pollination in isolation. In hybrid seed production block these lines are planted together in alternate rows to cross-pollination each other. The hybrid seed is harvested from both the parents (Bose et al., 2000)

    Problems in exploiting in self-incompatibility:

    In species with self-incompatibility continuous inbreeding results in the appearance of new incompatibility relationships, thus causing self-incompatibility. Such mutated forms cannot be used as parents for producing hybrids.

    1. Continuous inbreeding in many Brassica crops may lead to complete loss of inbreed lines. It, will therefore, be more desirable if tissue culture techniques for propagation of parental lines are followed. Sib-Mating for maintenance of these lines also prove useful.

    2. Psuedo-incompatibility may lead to pure seed in an otherwise hybrid seed.

    Reduction of strength of incompatibility by environmental factors e.g. Elevated temperatures may weaken incompatibility or may even break it down. Similar may be the Methods of F1 seed production:

    Single cross:
    Line-A Line-B
    S11 X S22
    Commercial hybrid
    (S12)

    Double cross:
    Line-A x Line-B Line C x Line D
    Line AB X Line CD
    Commercial hybrid

    Triple cross:
    Line-A x Line-B Line C Line D x Line E Line F
    Line AB x Line C Line DE x Line F
    3:1 3:1
    Commercial hybrid

    The main constraint has been the maintenance and multiplication of these lines for the production of F1 hybrid seed. An attempt to eliminate self-incompatibility temporarily has become rather successful, which has avoided the tedious bud pollination, the self-incompatibility line, if the plant is placed in 2- 5 percent carbon dioxide gas within 2-6 hours of pollination, the self incompatibility is temporarily eliminated.

    Break down of self-incompatibility:

    1. Bud pollination

    2. Delayed self pollination

    3. Application of carbon dioxide

    4. Treatment of stigma with organic solvents

    5. End- season pollination

    6. Steel brush pollination

    7. Double pollination.

    Ratios: 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 or 4:1

    Synchronization of flowering:

    1. Adjust the time of planting

    2. Pinching the main stalk or picking off lower buds.

    3. Beehives for pollination increases the seed yield.

    Seed storage

    The serious problem faced by stored Cole crop seeds is a rapid deterioration which occurs at an increasing rate in uncontrolled storage environments. Seed deterioration cannot be fully arrested, but may be slowed down by storing the seeds in suitable containers such as laminated bags and 700 gauge polythene bags.

    Indian minimum seed certification standards
    cabbage Cauliflower Knol-khol
    FS CS FS CS FS CS
    Pure seed (min) 98% 98% 98% 98% 98% 98%
    Inert matter(max) 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%
    OCS (max) 5/kg 10/kg 5/kg 10/kg 5/kg 10/kg
    Weed seed (max) 5/kg 10/kg 5/kg 10/kg 5/kg 10/kg
    Germination (%) (min) 70 70 65 65 70 70
    Moisture (max) 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0
    For vapour proof containers (max) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
    (Handbook of minimum seed standards)

    Seed test methods

    Crops Substrate Temperature oC First count Final count breaking dormancy
    Cabbage TP, BP 15-25, 20-30 3 10 Light, pre-chilling, KNO3
    Cauliflower TP, BP 15-25, 20-30 3 10 Light, pre-chilling, KNO3
    Knol-khol TP, BP 15-25, 20-30 3 10 Light, pre-chilling, KNO3
    ISTA,2006
    Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE

    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size :0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin- right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}


    HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION OF TOMATO

    Botanical name : Lycopersicum esculentum

    Family : Solanaceae

    Tomato floral biology:

    • Highly self pollinated with 0.5-4% out crossing

    • 4-8 flowers/ inflorescence

    • 5-6 yellow petals

    • Stamens elongated forming a cone enclosing the pistil & stigma

    • Base of anthers connected with bottom part of petals, facilitating easy emasculation

    Inflorescence : Cluster

    Hybrid seed production technique : Emasculation technique

    Popular hybrids : Arka Vishal, Arka Vardhan, Arka Abhijit, Arka Shresta, Arka Ananya

    Land and climate:

    • Dry season 21-30º C/ 15-20ºC temperature

    • Poor fruit set at > 30OC& >60% RH.

    • Soil pH – 6.0 to 7.0

    Season : January-February, Oct-Nov. can be grown throughout the year

    Selection of Parents and sowing : Female-best seed yielder.

    Planting ratio : 1: 4 (Male: Female) adopting in block system

    Stages of seed production : Breeders, foundation seed ,certified seed Parental line multiplication, (BS & FS) hybrid production. (CS).

    Isolation :

    • FS : 200 m

    • CS : 100 m

    • Between parental line : 5 m

    Sowing :
    Staggering : Male parent sown 3 week earlier.
    Seed rate : Female -60-100 g/ha
    Male - 20-25g/ha

    Spacing:90x60cm

    Fertilizers:100:75:75 NPK/ha

    Nursery: Raise the seedlings in raised bed in nylon mesh protected area or use pro-trays to raise the seedlings in net house

    Steps involved in hybrid seed production programme

    • Inbred line development

      The genotypes which are to be utilized for heterosis breeding programme should be uniform for economic traits.

    • Combining ability

      At least one parent should have high general combining ability for producing heterotic hybrid.

    • Rouging in female and male parents

      • Before flower

      • Early flowering and first fruit immature

      • Fruiting

    • Emasculation and Hand pollination

      Buds emasculated 12-14 hr before the opening of flowers of male parents they are bagged at bud stage and are picked up in the afternoon. The pollen is collected in dry petridishes as stamens are hygroscopic. The receptivity of stigma and anther dehiscence is 24-36 hr before the opening of flowers. Pollination is generally done in the morning hours between 7.00 am to 1.00 pm . The cost of hybrid seed can be reduced by the use of male sterile line.

      Four types of male sterility have been found in tomato.

      1. Sterile pollens

      2. Stamen less flower

      3. Positional sterility

      4. Functional male sterility

    Crossing technique

    1. Raise the crop of pollen and ovule parents during optimum season

    2. Select one or two well developed buds of ovule parent which will open next day

    3. Emasculate the flower buds in the evening by removing the anther cone using the clean and pointed forceps or head pin

    4. Cover the emasculated flowers with butter paper cover of constant size of 10x5 cm

    5. Cover the flower bud to be used as pollen parent

    6. Use covers of different colours for pollen and ovule parent

    7. Collect the pollen 7am -10am

      POLLEN COLLECTION

      Flowers with corolla yellow / white are to be selected

      ¯

      The separated anthers are dried and phased through muslin cloth

      ¯

      A simpler method is to use two plastic containers separated by muslin cloth

      ¯

      When the dried anthers are held in one of the containers, on vigorous shaking the pollen comes through to the other containers

    8. Dust the collected pollen on the receptive stigma of emasculated flower

    9. The pollinated flowers are marked by pinching off a part of two sepals of the calyx / bagging/ tying thread around the pedicel so as to identify crossed fruits

    10. Harvest fully matured fruits and extract seeds

    11. Grade the seeds after treating with Captan or Thiram 2g/kg in 150 guage polythene aluminium bags

    Seed Extraction

    1. Fermentation method

      • The fruits are pulped by trampling under foot or using a pulper and collect the pulp in plastic container or cement tank.

      • The pulp is allowed to ferment overnight.

      • The next day seeds get separated from the pulp.

      • The floating fraction is removed by discarding and the seeds are colleted, washed well and dried in the shade and then in sun between 8-12 Noon and 2-5 pm.

    2. Hydrochloric acid Method

      • The fruits are pulped by trampling under foot or by using a pulper and collect the pulp in a plastic container or cement tank.

      • Add commercial hydrochloric acid @ 10 ml kg-1 of pulp and keep it for 45 min with occasional stirring.

      • The seeds get separated from the pulp and sink to the bottom.

      • The floaters can be removed by discarding.

      • The seeds are collected, washed well with water 3-4 times and dried in shade.

      • The advantages of this method are the seeds are attractive in colour, recovery is very high, remove the external seed borne pathogens and do not clog each other while drying. Seed quality is also very high.

    3. The other methods

      Seed are also extracted by alkali method and citric acid method but are injurious to seed storage.

    4. Mechanical Extraction

      • Tomato seeds are also extracted by using Tomato seed extractor or pulper for large scale seed extraction.

      • The seed extraction consists of two units operated by electric motor, one is fruit pulper or crasher and second one is seed and pulp separator.

      • The whole unit is made of stainless steel.

      • Here extraction is immediate seed recovery is high and pulp/juice can be further used for making by product like jam, jelly etc.

    Drying: Dry the seeds in shade to moisture content of 6%

    Grading: Grade the seeds by using air screen cleaner and gravity separator

    Seed Yield:

    • Seed yields vary between 70-80kg/ha under outdoor condition in tomato

    Designated / seed borne diseases :

    • Early blight (Alternaria solani)

    • Leaf spot

    • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)

    Field standard (certified Seeds)

    Standards

    Permitted (Maximum %)

    Off types in seed parent

    0.05 %

    Off types in pollinator parent

    0.05 %

    Pollen shedder

    0.1 %

    Plant affected by seed borne disease

    0.5 %

    Seed standard (Certified Seed - Hybrid)
    Pure seed (minimum) : 98.0%
    Inner matter (maximum) : 2.0%
    Other crop seeds (maximum) : 10/kg.
    Weed seeds (maximum) : None.
    Germination (minimum) : 70.0%
    Moisture Content : 8.0%
    M.C. for V.P. container : 6.0
    Genetic purity during grow-out test : 95.0%


    HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION IN CHILLI

    Botanical Name : Capsicum annum

    Inflorescence : Solitary.

    Pollination : Often cross pollinated crop (16% out crossing)

    Anthesis : 5-6 a.m.

    Anther dehiscence : 8-11 a.m.

    Ideal temperature for Seed set : 20-25°C

    Pollen viability : 24 hours (At the day of anthesis)

    Stigma receptivity : 24 hours

    Selfing technique : Bagging

    Crossing technique :

    • Emasculation and hand pollination

    • Genetic male sterility

    Popular hybrids : Arka Meghana, Arka Sweta, Arka Harita

    Soil pH : 5-5-7.0

    Environmental Problem : At 38°C fruit development will be affected.

    Commercial Hybrid Seed Production technique

    Land selection :

    • Free from volunteer plants

    • Free from Macrophomina infection

    • Same crop not to be raised in the previous two seasons.

    Land Preparation :

    • Fine tilth

    • Ridges & Furrows

    Isolation : FS – 400 m CS – 200 m

    Season : June – July, Feb – March

    Seed Rate : Female – 500 g/ha

    Male – 100 g/ha

    Seedling Production : By raising raised bed nursery

    Nursery Preparation : 1m breath with optimum length. Compost to be incorporated. Shade to be provided

    Sowing : Line sowing at 60x60 (non spreading) 75x90(spreading type)

    Seeding Protection : Drenching with 1% Bavistin, or Drenching with Blue Copper 1%

    Age of transplanting : 21 days

    Fertilizer : FYM-20 tons/ha, NPK :300(SSP):50(CAN):50(potassium sulphate)

    Foliar spray :

    • NAA 50 ppm at full bloom stage against flower drop

    • Ethrel 400 ppm to enhance fruit set.

    Hybridization

    Emasculation : Early in the morning or previous day afternoon before flower opening and the petals still covering the anthers and stigma.

    Pollination : Late in the morning

    Methodology

    • Emasculation may be done in the previous afternoon before opening of flower and petals still covering the anthers and stigma.

    • The petals are removed carefully with the help of a pair of forceps and the anthers are removed separately.

    • The emasculated flower buds are protected by thin cotton wad or bag or by thin cloth loosely wrapped around the branch, enclosing leaves and flowers and securely fastened.

    • Pollen collection is normally done late in the morning.

    • Pollen from the previously protected flowers are collected by a vibrator or after plucking the flowers from intended male parents, they are gently tapped by finger for the collection of pollen in petridish or watch glass.

    • Best time of pollination in early morning of the following day of emasculation.

    • Pollination in done by touching the freshly dehiscenced anthers to the stigma by forceps, by dusting pollens over the stigma or by transferring the pollens with brush or needle very carefully and the petals may be cut off to facilitate pollination.

    • Bagging of the flowers should be done to prevent pollen contamination.

    Field inspection : 3 times Before flowering, At flowering, After flowering at fruiting stage.

    Roguing : Done from vegetative to harvesting stage.

    Plant Protection:

    Insects:

    Leaf eating catter piller, fruit borer: Sparay monocrotophos 2ml/l or sevin 1.5g/l

    Jassids,Aphids, white flies: Spray Imidaclopride 1ml/l ot Actara 1ml/l

    Diseases: Damping off: drench with capton or metalaxyl

    Early blight/blight: Spray Benlate 2g/l or Mancozeb 2g/l or Metalaxyl 1ml/l

    Virus affected plants has to be rogued out
    Physiological Maturation : 35 DAA
    Type of harvest : Picking
    Number of pickings : 4-5 at weekly intervals
    Seed extraction : Mechanically using chilliseed extractor
    Seed grading : By using recommended screen size in air screen cleaner and gravity seperator
    Seed treatment : Bavistin @ 2g/kg

    Seed packing :

    • Long term storage – 700 guage polythene bag

    • Short term storage – cloth bag

    Seed yield : 50-60 kg/ha

    Field standards


    Contamination

    Maximum permitted %

    Foundation

    Certified

    Off types

    0.10

    0.20

    Plants affected by seed borne diseases (leaf blight ,Anthracnose)

    0.10

    0.50


    Seed standards


    Factor

    Standards for each class

    Foundation

    Certified

    Pure seed (%) (Max)

    98

    98

    Inert matter (max)

    2

    2

    Other crop seeds (Max)

    5/kg

    10/kg

    Weed seeds (Max)

    5/kg

    10/kg

    Germination (%) (Min.)

    60

    60

    Moisture (%)

    8

    8

    Vapour proof containers

    6

    6



    HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION IN BRINJAL (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.)

    Inflorescense :Four types of flowers in brinjal based length Of style viz.

    • Long styled with big size ovary (25)

    • Medium styled with medium size ovary (10%)

    • Pseudo short styled with rudimentary ovary (15%) and

    • Time short styled with rudimentary ovary (50%)

    Flower : Solitary (or) in cluster of two (or) more highest % of fruitset is found where the stigma is above the stamens , bisexual flowers

    Anthesis : 7.30 am to 11.30 am

    Peak time of anthesis : 8.30 to 10.30 a.m.

    Pollen dehiscence : 9.30 to 10.00 a.m.

    Stigma receptivity : At the time of flower opening more cross
    Pollination by itself

    Pollen viability : 8-10 days

    Selfing : Bagging

    Crossing technique :

    • Emasculation and Pollination

    • Male sterility line also used

    Commercial Hybrid seed production technique : Manual method / emasculating and pollination

    Popular hybrids :

    • Long: Pusa Hybrid-5, RHRBH-3, BSS-513, BSS-127, Navina, Lonag Purple, Mamata, PPL-74, HABH-18, Sachin.,TSX-251, NBH-171, GS-82-2WA, ARBH-201

    • Round: Pusa Hybrid-6, VRBHR-1, Utsav, BSS-540, Raveena, Surbhi, Neelma, Kuroi, HABH-17, Anurag, NDBH-1,

    • Oblong: Arka Navneet, BH-1, BH-2, Pusa Hybrid-9, Ravaiya, Vijay, Suman, Ulka,NBH-2002, KBHR-4

    • Small Round: MHB-10, RHRBH-2, Mridula, BSS-426, BSS-468, ZEH-4078, ZEH-4011, EPH-139, NBH-627, Ajeet, Virat, GS-84-2004, Phule Hybrid-2, MHB-39, ABH-1

    Commercial Hybrid seed production technique

    Land selection : Fertile, well, drained sandy (or) sandy loam soil, Disease free field is important one, Previous crop should not be brinjal for past 2 seasons

    Isolation : The distance of Foundation stage : 200 m

    Certified stage : 200 m

    Land preparation : Deep ploughing

    Season : Sowing : Transplanting
    July-July : July - August
    Nov.-Dec. : Jan. - Feb.
    Mar-Apr. : April-May

    Spacing : Female plant : 100 x 75 cm. Male plant : 75 x 60 cm.

    Fertilizer : NPK : 100:50:30 kg/ha
    50 N basal
    I 25 : 25-30 DAT
    II 25 : 45-50 DAT

    Seeds & Sowing

    • Get seed from Authenticated source

    • Get appropriate seed based on seed production

    Seed rate : 430 g of female seeds, 70 g male seeds.

    Raising of seedling: Separate raised nursery bed for male and female parent.

    Sowing Depth : 5-10 cm deep in rows of 5 cm apart.cover with fine layer of soil & compost.

    Germination : 12 to 18 days.

    Transplanting : 20-25 DAS. Should not mixed male and female parent.

    Row ratio : 5:1 (or) 6:1 Female & Male

    Herbicide : Fluchloralin (Basalin) @ 2-3 litres/ha. (Pre-emergenc herbicide)

    Irrigation : After transplanting light irrigation essential for survival.

    Summer : Every 4th (or) 5th day whereas 10-12 days during in winter.

    Crossing Techniques/Hybrid seed production

    1. Raise male parent 7 to 10 days prior to female parents

    2. Ratio of female: male - 5:1

    3. Rouging in female and male parents

      • Before flower

      • Early flowering and first fruit immature

      • Fruiting

    4. OPEN FLOWER Already bloomed flowers in female parents to be removed

    5. EMASCULATION: Hand emasculation with one stroke using forceps

    6. POLLINATION :Emasculated flowers are pollinated the next day (8-11am) Pollination is done using plastic rings with cups

    7. POLLEN COLLECTION

      1. Flowers with corolla yellow / white are to be selected

      2. The separated anthers are dried and phased through muslin cloth

      3. A simpler method is to use two plastic containers separated by muslin cloth

      4. When the dried anthers are held in one of the containers, on vigorous shaking the pollen comes through to the other containers

    8. CROSS POLLINATION: Not damaging the style, Maximum pollen to be deported on the stigma.

    9. The pollinated flowers are marked by pinching off a part of two sepals of the calyx / bagging/ tying thread around the pedicel so as to identify crossed fruits

    Roguing

    • Before flowering : Already born flowers should be removed branch orientation, leaf colour, presence (or) absence of pubescence should be removed diseases and disorders should be removed.

    • At flowering and fruiting, late flowers, flower colour, flower orientation. At the time of fruiting stages - fruit colour, fruit shape are consider.

    • At maturing stage :Immature and overmatured fruits. Fruits for size, shape, colour and external feature.

    Physiological maturing : Fully ripened seeds are used for seed extraction. Colour of the fruit is full yellow.

    Harvesting : 50-55 DA Pollination depending on the maternal parent.

    Seed extraction and drying : Fruits is peeled off.

    The number of seeds are imbibed is cut into pieces or crushed electric pupler is allowed to soak in water for 12 hours washing in running water.

    • HCl is added in pulp at 1:4 ratio (25 ml HCl/kg of pulp) stired for 25-30 minutes and then separated out washing and seiving.

    • Poor quality seeds are shorted out. Recovery of seed is 5%.

    Drying : Partial shade to bring down the moisture content 8%.

    Seed yield : 50-60 kg/ha. 1000 seed weight is 4-5 g approximately.

    Grading : 8/64" round perforated metal sieve.

    Storage : Drug store beatle (stegobium paniceum L.) is a serious pest of brinjal seeds. Moisture 8% treated with Thiram 75 WP @ 2.5 g/kg (or) Malathion 5 D @ 3 g/kg of seed.


    Field standard


    Factors

    Certified

    Renames

    Off types

    0.20

    Strict roughing for Phomosis blight and little leaf diseases.

    Other types

    -

    Objectionable weed plants

    -

    Disease Plants

    0.50


    Seed Standards


    Standards

    Certified

    Pure seed (min)

    98.0

    Inert matter (max)

    2.0

    Other crop seed (max)

    None

    Total weed seed (max)

    None

    Objectionable weed seed (min)

    None

    Germination (min)

    70

    Moisture (max)

    8


    HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION BHENDI

    Land:

    • Free from Volunteer plants

    • Fertile, well drained free from soil borne diseses

    Isolation:
    Self pllinated, cross pollination-4-19%
    400m(FS) from wild Abelmoschus sp
    200m(CS) from wild Abelmoschus sp
    Time of sowing: Through out year
    Preparation of land: to fine tilth
    Seed source: Approved source
    Planting Ratio: 4:1 (block method)
    Seed rate: 12kg:3kg (Feamle:Male)
    Method of sowing: ridges and furrows
    Spacing:Female: 60x45cm Male: 45x30cm
    Fetilizers:30 tos of FYM
    N:P:K=350ssp:125MOP:300 ammo sulphate

    Season :

    1. June - August

    2. Nov - January

    3. Mar - May

    Two hoeings are given before flowering.

    Duration : 90-95 days

    Preparation of field

    Field is ploughed 3-4 times, at the time of 1st ploughing 25 tonnes of FYM is applied. Ridges and furrows are formed at 45 cm apart.

    Irrigation

    Immediately after sowing and then once in a week (or) 10 days depending on the soil moisture irrigation should be given.

    Organizing the crossing programme

    1. Rough out all off-types before commencement of the crossing programme

    2. Select proper size bud about to open next day

    3. Restrict emasculation to evening hours 2 pm to 6 pm and pollination to morning between 9 am to 12 pm

    4. Emasculation should be complete and perfect

    5. Remove any un-emasculated flower with out fail

    6. Give light irrigation as and when required during crossing programme

    7. Cover the male buds with paper pockets the previous day

    8. Emasculated buds should be covered perfectly with butter paper covers or straw to identify for pollination next day

    9. Tie a thread to pedicel of the bud immediately after pollination

    10. Close the crossing programme and nip the top end and maintain 6-8 fruits per plant.

    Plant protection: Pests

    • Jassids, Aphids, whit flies: Roger 30 EC1ml/l or Imidacloprid 1ml/l, Acephate 1gm/l

    • Borers: Monocrotophos 2ml/l or Sevin 1g/l or Methomyl 1ml/l

    • Red spidermite: Dicofol 2m/l or Majastar 1.5/l

    Disease

    • Yellow vein mosaic:Control Jassids

    • Powdery mildew: Sulfur 2g/l

    Roguing: Both in male and female –offtypes, YVM infected plants

    Charectes of roguing; Plant height, leaf and stem charecters, pigmentation, flower size and shape, fruit shape ect.

    Harveting and threshing: Pods should be harvested when they have dried (35 days pld). Varities with anguler pods, which open along sutures, should be harvested promptly to avoide shettering.

    Pods are picked by hand and threshed by flailing seeds by hand or beat with sticks.

    Seed Yield:10-12 qtl/ha


    Field standards


    Factor

    FS

    CS

    Off types

    0.10

    0.20

    Objectionable weed seed

    None

    None


    Seed standards


    Factor

    Standard

    Foundation clan

    Certified clan

    Pure seed (Min)

    99%

    99

    Inert matter (Max)

    1

    1

    Other crop seeds (Max)

    None

    5/kg

    Total weed seed (Max)

    None

    None

    Objectionable weed seed (Max)

    None

    None

    ODV

    10/kg

    20/kg

    Germination

    65%

    65%

    Moisture

    10%

    10%

    Vapour Proof Containers (Max)

    8

    8



    Commercial Crops

    Sugarcane Seed Production

    Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE

    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";}

    Sugarcane is one of the most efficient converters of solar energy into sugars and other renewable forms of energy. The plant was domesticated by the Polynesians for its sweet stem, but presently it has emerged as a multipurpose crop providing not only sugar but also a series of value added products such as paper, ethanol and other alcohol derived chemicals, animal feed, antibiotics, particle board, bio-fertilizer and raw material for generating electricity.

    Global sugar consumption has been increasing at a steady rate of 2 per cent per annum. Ethanol has emerged as a key product from the sugarcane industry globally. With ever increasing oil prices, more and more countries are encouraging plant-based ethanol production as an environment-friendly fuel. About 20 countries in the Asia-Pacific region grow sugarcane on a commercial basis contributing 608.37 million tonnes (mt) to the world production of 1,387.78 mt.

    However, sugarcane yields vary widely across the region, ranging from 17.1 tonnes/hectare(t/ha) in Cambodia to 91.97 t/ha in Australia with an average yield of 56.66 t/ha compared to the world average of 67.98 t/ha. Most of the sugarcane farmers in this region are small and confronted with problems of low cane yields due to poor quality seed, low fertilizer inputs, prevalence of diseases and pests, lack of proper irrigation facilities, untimely harvests and several other local constraints. The limited cultivable area available for expansion and continuing conversion of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes necessitate that production increase comes mainly from increase in per hectare yields.

    Improved agronomic practices, use of required quantity of fertilizer at appropriate time, better irrigation facilities, comprehensive disease and pest management packages and regular development of improved varieties are the necessary inputs required for improving sugarcane production and productivity. Besides, availability of disease and pest-free, true to type planting material is an important prerequisite for achieving the desired yield improvement. Sugarcane, being a vegetatively propagated crop, has a low 1:6 to 1:8 seed multiplication rate. Hence, non-availability of quality seed material is one of the major problems faced by farmers in developing countries. Further, the bulky cane cuttings used for planting as seed harbor many pests and diseases thereby decreasing cane yield and quality drastically. Accumulation of diseases over vegetative cycles leads to further yield and quality decline over the years. In fact, poor quality seed is a major constraint in Sugarcane production.

    VARIETY PROGRAM –

    Produce and disseminate new varieties of cane sugar, more productive, more drought tolerant and greater resistance to pests and diseases. This is the goal of the Breeding Program. The Improvement Program, through hybridization, selection and characterization, provides the associated changes of cane sugar high standard of quality and genetic potential. The surveys cover areas distributed over all regions of the country, covering different production environments. The selection process is intended to adapt to mechanization and the climatic conditions and management, taking into account the different needs.

    Production of seed is composed of a series of nodes and internodes.Each node has a leaf, in the axils of which a bud is located. The bud has a dormant apical meristem well protected by several tightly clasping bud scales. Besides the bud, the node possesses a root band zone bordered by a growth ring. The root band contains one to several rows of root primodia which produce roots when the cane cuttings are planted. The growth ring is an intercalary meristem located immediately above the root band. Cane cuttings with one, two or three buds, known as “setts”, “seed canes” or “seed pieces” are used as seed. In some instances, buds scooped out of the cane with a budchipping machine are used for raising the seed nursery.

    For raising a healthy sugarcane crop, setts should be harvested from 7 to 10 months old crop which is totally free of diseases and pests. The setts should be healthy and must have high moisture content. The buds should be dormant and the canes used to obtain seed setts must be free from rooting at the nodes, splits on the internodes and other damages.

    SEED SETT PREPARATION –

    In India, seed setts are prepared manually. Seed canes are harvested and dry leaves removed manually to avoid any damage to the buds. Canes are cut with a sharp knife into setts containing two or three buds each. Sett-cutting machines are now available making the process more efficient. The cut ends of seed setts become easy entry points of many disease causing microbes, leading to sett rotting and damage to the buds and root primodia. Soaking the setts for 5 to 10 minutes in 0.1 per cent solution of a systemic fungicide such as methyl benzimidazole-2yl-carbamate (MBC) just before planting is recommended to ensure protection.

    HEAT TREATMENT OF SETTS –

    Sugarcane setts may harbor a host of diseases such as sugarcane smut, red rot, grassy shoot, ratoon Node Bud groove Growth ring BudRoot eyes Leaf scar

    Internode Root zone

    Sugarcane seed cane and seed setts.

    • Seed cane

    • Three-budded seed sett.

    • Single-budded seed sett.

    Stunting, sugarcane mosaic and yellow leaf.
    Also, scale insects and borers present on the setts can cause heavy damage to the new crop.
    Heat treatment of setts helps in getting rid of several diseases and pests.

    There are four types of heat therapies:

    1. Hot water: setts are immersed in water maintained at 50°C for two to two and a half hours. Often, fungicides are mixed in hot water to eliminate smut disease.

    2. Hot air: dry heat produced by electric heaters placed at different points in the heating chamber is circulated with a fan.Temperature is maintained at 56°C and the seed is treated for eight hours.

    3. Moist hot air: steam is injected into the treatment chamber for four hours maintaining the temperature at 54°C.

    4. Aerated steam: steam is mixed with air in 1:4 proportion and forced into the treatment chamber through small holes. The treatment is given for one hour at 50°C.

    When applied properly, heat therapy eliminates ratoon stunting disease, grassy shoot disease, sugarcane smut disease, and also seed borne insect pests.

    SEED PRODUCTION

    A three-tier seed production system comprising breeders‟ (primary) seed, foundation (secondary) seed and commercial seed production as detailed below is ideally followed.

    Primary (Breeders’) Seed Production

    Primary seed production is done in scientifically supervised farms of research stations, state seed farms or research and development (R&D) farms of sugar industry. Setts from well maintained seed nurseries are given heat treatment by any one of the above detailed methods. After treatment, the setts are soaked in a fungicide solution (0.1 per cent MBC) for 5 to 10 minutes and planted in a well-prepared field, where sugarcane was not grown during the previous year. All recommended agronomical practices are followed.

    The field should be well-prepared and organic manure such as farm yard manure or cured press mud should be applied at the rate of 25 to 30 t/ha 15 days before planting. A spacing of 75 cm to 90 cm between rows is recommended. A slightly higher seed rate of 75,000 two-bud setts is recommended for raising breeders„ seed (primary seed) to compensate for germination loss due to heat therapy. For foundation and certified seed nurseries, a seed rate of 60,000 two-bud setts is adequate for obtaining a good stand.

    seed nursery is done at least three times during the crop growth.

    First inspection is done at 45 to 60 days after planting to detect off-types and to remove plants infected with designated diseases and pests. The second inspection is done at 120-130 days after planting to check for off-types, designated diseases and pests. The third inspection is done 15 days prior to harvesting of canes to check the general condition of the canes as seed. The crop is harvested at 7 to 10 months and used for planting foundation seed (secondary seed) nursery. The multiplication rate is around 1:6 to 1:7,

    lower than the normal multiplication rate of 1:7 to 1:8 due to slightly lower germination as a result of heat treatment of setts.

    bSecondary (Foundation) Seed Production

    Setts from primary seed nursery are used for planting secondary seed nursery. All the required agronomic practices are followed and the seed plots are inspected at regular intervals for prescribed standards (Annexure I). The crop is harvested at 7 to 10 month age and setts are used for planting commercial seed nurseries.

    Commercial Seed Production

    Setts obtained from foundation seed crop are used for planting commercial seed nurseries. Commercial seed plots are laid in farmers‟ fields identified for the purpose and distributed throughout the operational area of the sugar mill. This practice avoids transport of bulky seed to long distances. The seed plots are inspected as per seed certification standard. The crop is harvested at 7 to 10 month age and the cane is supplied as commercial seed. Care is taken to ensure that the buds are intact during transportation.

    The commercial seed thus produced can be propagated for about 4 to 5 years. Seed replacement with fresh commercial seed is done only after 4 years (Sundara, 2000).

    The setts from commercial seed plots are supplied to the sugarcane farmers generally by the cane development department of the sugar mills. While the system of seed production and distribution works satisfactorily at some places, at several others one or more stages of the system are impaired and the seed production is affected. Thus, a large proportion of the farmers in most of the developing countries still use traditional, poor quality seeds resulting in poor yields. importance in sugarcane where, as mentioned earlier, the normal seed multiplication rate is very low.

    A number of micropropagation techniques suitable for commercial seed production in sugarcane have been reported. Apical meristem culture was used by Coleman (1970) and Hendre et al. (1975) to obtain sugarcane mosaic virus free plants. Axillary bud culture was applied successfully by Sauvaire and Galzy (1978) to produce true to type clones in many sugarcane varieties. Hendre et al. (1983) standardized an apical meristem culture technique for rapid multiplication of mosaic virus-free plants of variety Co 740. Sreenivasan and Jalaja (1981) standardized micropropagation technique based on the use of apical meristem with two or three leaf primodia (meristem tip) as the explant. The latter can be excised without the aid of a microscope and the success rate of organogenesis is quite high. The number of plantlets produced from one shoot tip in 372 days can be as high as 180,000.

    The micropropagated plants are remarkably uniform except for rare off types showing some color changes, the latter can be rouged in the first generation itself. This meristem tip culture technique that has been widely adopted for commercial sugarcane seed production in India is detailed in the following pages.

    TISSUE CULTURE TECHNOLOGY

    Development of tissue culture technology for rapid multiplication of disease-free planting material has greatly facilitated mass production of quality seed in sugarcane. A number of micropropagation techniques have been adopted successfully by farmers and industry in some sugarcane growing countries of Asia-Pacific, e.g. India, Australia and the Philippines.

    The diseases are controlled by resistant varieties, the varieties incorporated by inoculation methods and evaluation of clones. The introduction of new parents, enables the expansion of the germplasm bank. For pests are developed monitoring techniques and application of methods of control, with priority given to organic products.

    MERISTEM TIP CULTURE

    In a growing sugarcane plant, the apical meristem is located at the tip of the stem surrounded by developing leaves and leaf sheaths. Meristems are also located in axillary buds which are dormant as long as the apical growing point is functional. Both the apical and the axillary buds are used for initiating meristem tip cultures. The shoot meristem measures approximately 0.1 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm to 0.30 mm in length and can be exposed by carefully removing the surrounding leaf sheaths. The meristem remains in an active state during the vegetative growth phase and the meristem cells are in a permanent embryonic state. The cells of the meristem are genetically highly stable and, hence, the plants produced from them are generally identical to the donor plants, except for the

    occurrence of rare mutations (Hendre et al., 1983; Sreenivasan and Jalaja, 1992).

    SUGARCANE ARTIFICIAL SEED

    An artificial seed comprises meristematic tissue enclosed in a solid covering, a process called "encapsulation”. The covering made of polymer material is permeable to air and soluble in water. The procedure of encapsulation in sugarcane involves the following steps:

    1. Production of micropropagules through shoot tip culture.

    2. Separation of robust axillary shoots up to a size of 0.5 cm. Care should be taken not to damage the base of the shoots where the meristem is situated.

    3. Encapsulation of shoots using a 3 per cent solution of sodium alginate prepared in distilled water or in MS medium. The micropropagules are dipped in this solution and placed in 2.5 per cent calcium chloride solution for 30 min with occasional agitation. The encapsulated micropropagules can be stored up to 20 days under culture room conditions. Neelamathi et al. (2007) have demonstrated that these can be stored in distilled water at 10°C for 60 days with good regeneration.

    The encapsulated micropropagules can be regenerated when required by inoculating them on MS media supplemented with 1.07 mg/l kinetin and 0.5mg/l NAA at 25°C and under illumination for 16 hrs. From this stage onwards regular micropropagation procedure is followed.

    The encapsulated micropropagules have the advantage of easy transportability even to distantly located commercial micropropagation laboratories. However, the technology is not being used on a commercial scale since leading micropropagation laboratories are not providing this service currently.

    Sugarcane artificial seed. a) Encapsulated micropropagules. (b). Shoot regeneration from encapsulated micropropagules.

    Compared to conventional seed production, the micropropagation based seed production system developed at SBI enables 3-4 times greater area coverage. Hence, the technique is highly desirable for rapid seed production of newly introduced varieties. Further, seed renovation of old, well adapted varieties through production of clean, disease-free material helps in restoring the original vigor and productivity of the varieties. The technology will also provide an opportunity to implement a well programmed varietal scheduling for maintaining high recovery throughout the season(Jalaja, 2001).

    These advantages of micropropagation-based seed production are well appreciated and the technology has been adopted with success in several countries of the Asia-Pacific region.

    SEED CANE STANDARDS

    Age of the seed cane crop at harvest for seed purpose shall be 6 to 8 months and 8 to 10 months for the sowing in tropics and sub-tropics, respectively, seed cane material undamaged and reasonably clean. Each node of seed cane shall bear one sound bud. The number of nodes without sound bud shall not exceed 5.0% (by number) of the total number of buds per seed cane. The number of buds, which have swollen up or have projected beyond one centimeter from the rind surface, shall not exceed 5.0% (by number) of the total number of buds.

    1. Application and Amplification of General Seed Cane Certification Standards:

      The General Seed Cane Certification Standards are basic and together with the following specific standards constitute the standards for certification of sugarcane seed cane. The certified classes shall be produced from seed canes and/or meri-clones whose sources and identity may be assured and approved by the Certification Agency.

    2. Land Requirements

      • A seed crop of sugarcane shall not be eligible for certification if planted on land on which sugarcane was grown in the previous season.

      • Land/seed crop shall be kept free from sugarcane residues and drainage from other sugarcane fields.

    3. Heat Treatment:

      Foundation Stage (I) shall be raised from heat-treated seed cane. IV. Field Inspection A minimum of three inspections shall be made as under:

      • The first inspection shall be made at 45-60 days after planting in order to verify isolation and detect volunteer plants, designated diseases and pests and other relevant factors.

      • The second inspections shall be made at 120-130 days after planting to verify Off-types, designated diseases and pests and other relevant factors.

      • The third inspection shall be made 15 days prior to the harvesting of seed canes to verify the age of cane, off-types, designated diseases and pests and other relevant factors.


    Oilseeds

    Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE

    /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;}


    SEED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogeal L.)

    Introduction

    Groundnut Arachis hypogea belongs to the family fabaceae under the under leguminosae. It was originated from Brazil and was introduced in India by about the sixteenth century. Economically it is an oilseed crop and the oil extracted from kernel is edible and extensively used for industrial purpose. The oilcake and plant are utilized as nutritious cattle food.

    The seed production in the multipurpose crop fetches importance owing to their lowest multiplication ratio which varies from 1:8 to 1:5 in Indian subcontinent. But adoption of good production technique can aids in production of good quality seed with higher yield potential. Popular varieties grown in Karnataka are GPED-4, TMV-2, JL-24, K-134, VRI-2

    The important seed production techniques to be adopted form sowing to harvest are as detailed below.

    1. Selection of land

      It is important for production of genetically pure seeds. The land should be free from volunteer lands and the previous crop should not be groundnut. Further the land should be free from root rot caused by Macrophomina sp. The land should be prepared to fine tilth for better establishment.

    2. Isolation

      It is also important for maintenance of genetic purity and the field should be isolated from other groundnut varieties with a distance of 3 m at all sides.

    3. Season

      It is important for maximizing the yield. The selected season should be such that the maturation period should not coincide with rainy season because it will cause vivipary at the time of harvest. Anyhow December – January is recommended for irrigated crop and June – July is recommended for rainfed crop.

    4. Seed rate and spacing

      Based on the growing habitat the seed rate and spacing varies as below:

      Plant habitat

      Seed rate (pod kg ha.-1)

      Spacing

      Bunch type

      100-120 kg/ha

      20 x 15

      Spreading type

      80-100 kg/ha

      60 x 15

      Semi spreading type

      80-100 kg/ha

      45 x15

    5. Pre-sowing seed management

      5.1. Selection of pod

      The seeds used for sowing should be or certified class (Foundation and certified seed) certified class with higher physical, physiological and genetic purity. Shriveled, damaged, naked, undersized, fungal (aflotoxin) infected seed (kernel) should be separated from the seed material.

      5.2. Seed treatment

      The seeds should be treated with thiram on Mancozed or carbendazim @ 2 kg-1 of seed. The seeds also can be treated with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg of seed before sowing. It is compatible with biofertilizers and is not compatible with fungicides. Treat the seeds with 3 packets of rhizobial culture using the gruel as binder.

      5.3. Breaking seed dormancy

      Some varieties of groundnut possess seed dormancy, particularly when fresh seeds are used for sowing. This fresh ungerminated dormant seed can be identified through tetrazolium testing. These seeds are treated with 200 ppm of ethrel for 6 hours and are used for sowing.

      5.4. Seed hardening / removal of dead seed

      The seeds are hardened for dryland sowing by soaking in 0.5% CaCl2 (50% seed volume) for 6 hours. After 6 hr seeds should be spread over moist gunny bag and covered with another moist bag for 24 hr. After 24 hr the seeds with sprouted radicle (Just visible expression of radicle) should be separated and dried under shade. It should be repeated for 2-3 times with 2 hr interval and all the viable seed with expressed radicle emergence should be separated and dried under shade. The dead seeds are separated by this process and showing of viable seed enables establishment of required plant stand.

    6. Sowing

      The treated seeds are dibbled at 4 cm depth under irrigated condition and line sowing is better for the rainfed crop. The gap filling should be done with the pre-germinated seed within 10 days. Upto 1 week the sown seeds are to be protected from the crows and squirrels.

    7. Manures and fertilizers

      At last ploughing 12.5 tones of farm yard manure and full doses of PK 40:60 kg ha-1 are applied to the soil. Nitrogen @ 40 kg ha-1 and Borax @ 10 kg ha-1 is applied to the soil before sowing. The micronutrient mixture 12.5 kg ha-1 should be applied on the surface after sowing.

    8. Nutritional disorders

      Groundnut is highly susceptible to nutritional deficiencies. Nutrient deficiencies and their symptoms in groundnut are as follows.

      Nutrient

      Deficiency

      Remedy

      Zinc

      Light yellow stripes along with veins and leaf blade under acute condition. Veinal chlorosis and cessation of growth of terminal bud

      ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 as basal

      Iron

      Interveinal chlorosis depression of growth of aerial parts and stunted root growth

      Spray 1% FeSO4 on 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing

      Boron

      Rosette appearance, pod development is affected resulting in production of 'pop' pods

      Borax 10 kg + gypsum 200 kg ha-1 at 45 days after sowing

      Sulphur

      Stunted growth chlorotic plants, thin stemmed and spindle appearance

      Application of gypsum at 45 days after sowing

      Calcium

      Hallow heart seeds, single seeded pods

      Application of gypsum at 45 days after sowing

    9. Weed management

      Pre emergence application of herbicide namely, Fluchloralin @ 2.0 lit/ha followed by hand wedding at 40 days after sowing or two hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after sowing can be followed.

    10. Pest management

      This crop is susceptible to several pest and diseases. The effective control measures are as follows.

      Pest Leaf minor and other insect pests

      Phosalon 4% D, Endosulphon 4% D, Carbary1 10%, Monocrotophos 25 EC 750 ml/ha, Quinalphos 25 EC 750 ml/ha

      Rust

      Moncozed 1 kg/ha Wettable powder 2.5 kg/ha

      Leaf spot

      Carbendazim 250 g/ha-1

      Rust and Tikka leaf spot

      Carbendazim 250 g/ha, Mancozeb 500 g/ha

    11. Earthing up

      It is the most important operation during which each plant is earthed up with porous soil which helps in peg formation and their easy penetration. It should be done 40-45 days after sowing. During earthing up gypsum is applied @ 500 kg/ha and incorporated in the soil. This gypsum application encourages pod formation and better filling up of the pods.

    12. Irrigation

      Even before sowing the pulverized soil is irrigated and after 1 day when soil moisture is optimum seeds are sown. Life irrigation is given on 3rd day followed by once in 10 days depending on the climatic conditions. The critical periods for the irrigation are peg formation stage (40-45 days), flowering phase (25-60 days) and maturity phase (60-90 days). Spraying of 0.5% KCl at flowering and pod development stages will aid to mitigate the effects of water stress.

    13. Rouging

      It is an important field operation needed for maintenance of genetic purity. It is done from seedling stage upto harvesting based on habitat (spreading, bunch; semi spreading) leaf foliage colour (dark / light green), flower characters, pod characters (length, beak shape, 2/3 seeded etc.) and seed characters (colour of testa). The off types that deviate from the original characters are removed from the plot and are destroyed.

      Field standards

      FS

      CS

      Offtypes (%)

      0.10

      0.50

    14. Physiological maturation and harvesting

      Drying and falling of older leaves and yellowing of the top leaves indicates maturity. At maturation time the inner side of the pod will be black in colour instead of white and pod will give rattling sound. At the time of harvest, the field is irrigated and at sufficient moisture level the plant is pulled as such. Maleic hydrazide 0.5% is to be sprayed between 65-70 days to control vivipary.

    15. Stacking :

      The pulled out plants are stacked near the field in such a way that the pods are exposed to outside for easy drying. The height of the heap should be minimum to avoid heating up of pods during heaping.

    16. Stripping

      The pods are stripped from plant for its collection either manually or with groundnut stripper.

    17. Yield

      Depending upon the varieties, season and agroclimatic condition prevailed in the area the yield of pods may be varied from 14 to 25Qtls per ha.

    18. Pod grading

      Mechanically injured, immatured, shrivelled, insect / diseased infected, germinated and the undersized pods are removed by grading them with groundnut pod grader using 22/64" (8.8 mm) – 22/64" (9 mm) round perforated metal sieves.

    19. Pod verification

      For evaluation of genetic purity, the pods are verified for their variation as off type based on number of seed / pod, beak character, length and size of pod etc.

    20. Decordication

      The pods are decordicated before sowing using groundnut decordicator.

    21. Kernel / seed grading

      The seeds obtained from decordication should be graded using 18/64" round perforated metal sieve to remove shrivelled and undersized seeds.

    22. Drying

      Pods should be dried to 7-8% moisture content either by sundrying

    23. Pod storage

      Pod storage is the general practice of seed storage in groundnut because the kernels lose their viability faster than pods. The pods can be dry dressed with thiram or bavistin @ 4 g kg-1 of pod for better storage. The pods can also be treated with chlorine based halogen mixture @ 3 g kg-1 of pod.

      For long term storage (upto 2 years) the pods can be stored in 700 gauge polyethylene bags where the containers are heat sealed. For medium term storage (upto 1 year) the pods can be stored in interwooven polyvinyl bag. For short term storage, seeds can be stored in new gunny bags containing calcium chloride @ 250 g / 30 kg of pod in plastic containers.

    24. Storage condition

      The bags should be stacked on wooden pallets to avoid ground moisture contact with pod in a zigzag manner under well vantilated, rat and rain proof room. The bags are to be rearranged once in a month. The pods can also be fumigated with celphos @ 3 g cu m-1 as a preventive measure to avoid pest infestation. The godown should be kept clean and neat with periodical cleaning. Malathion spray has to be avoided for groundnut as it causes malathion injury.


    SEED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF SOYBEAN

    Soybean is a highly self pollinated crop but Cowpea though it is a self pollinated the extend of cross pollination is upto 15-20%. On insect activity the extend of insect pollination will be higher.

    Method of Seed Production

    The varieties are raised under isolation and by thorough roguing genetically pure seeds are produced.

    Seeds Multiplication stages

    Breeder seed --> Foundation seed --> Certified seed

    Varieties:

    Hardee, KHSB-2, Monatta, KB-79

    Land requirement

    The land should be fertile and should not have been grown with the same crop in the previous season. If grown, it should be the same variety which was certified for the said class of seed.

    Isolation(m):3 m (FS) , 3m (CS)

    Season :June-July and September - October. But there should not be rain or high humidity at the time of harvest.

    Seeds and Sowing

    Seed should be obtained from authenticated source with tag and bill. The seeds are to be treated with fungicides (capton 2gm Kg-1) for better germination and establishment. Before sowing seeds are to be treated with Rhizobium culture.

    Seed rate Spacing:80Kg ha-1 30x10 cm

    Manure's and fertilizers
    Compost : 12.5tons ha-1
    NPK:80:80:160 NPK kg ha-1 40 Kg N as Top dressing at flowering stage.
    Foliar spray : 2% DAP at initiation of flowering and 15 days after the 1st spray. Spray Planofix 40 ppm together.

    Pest and Diseases

    To control white fly spray phosphomidon 86 EC @ 500ml ha-1 or Dimethoate 30 EC 500ml ha-1

    Roguing

    The off types and volunteer plants are to be removed as and when they occur from vegetative to harvesting stage based on leaf colour, stem colour, growth status, flower colour, pod colour, seed colour etc.

    Field standards

    FS

    CS

    Offtypes (%)

    0.10

    0.50

    Irrigation

    Irrigation is given immediately after sowing. Liter irrigation is given on 3rd day after sowing. Subsequently the field is irrigated once in 7-10 days. Critical stages are flowering and pod filling stage.

    Pre-harvest Sanitation Spray

    Two weeks before harvest Nuvan (2ml/l) should be sprayed twice at weekly interval to control pod borer and primary infestation of Bruchids.

    Harvesting

    Seed attains maturity 23-25 days after anthesis. The crop is harvested as once over harvest with pods intact with plant. Yellowing of plant and browning of pods is the external symptoms of physiological maturation.

    Threshing

    The pods are dried in the threshing floor and beaten with pliable bamboo sticks for removal of seeds. The extracted seeds are winnowed to get the seeds. The seeds should be dried to 10-12% moisture content under sun for good seed storage.

    Grading

    The bulk seeds are graded using 14/64" round perforated metal sieve for homogenizing the seed based on size.

    Seed standards

    The graded seed should possess the following characters for certification and sale as certified/ truthfully labeled seed


    Parameters

    FS

    CS

    Physical purity (min)

    98

    98

    Inert matter (max) %

    2

    2

    Other crop seed (max)

    None

    10/kg

    Weed Seed (max)

    5/kg

    10/kg

    Other distinguishable variety seed (max)

    5/kg

    10/kg

    Germination (max) (including hard seed)

    70

    70

    Moisture content (Max)

    9

    9


    Seed treatment and Storage

    The seeds should be treated with Captan+ Sevin @ 2g+200mg Kg-1 of seed for safe storage. The treated seed can be stored upto one year in open storage and upto 2years in moisture vapour proof containers, provided the seeds are devoid of bruchid infestation both primarily and secondarily.

    Seed Yield:20-25 qtl/ha


    SEED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF COW PEA

    A high rate of flower occurs in this crop. Normally a cowpea plant produces 100-500 flowers of which 70 to 80% shed before anthesis in the remaining about half of them abort prematurely.

    Varieties:

    Cowpea: KBC-1 & 2, C-152, TVX-944

    Land requirement

    The land should be fertile and should not have been grown with the same crop in the previous season. If grown, it should be the same variety which was certified for the said class of seed.

    Isolation(m): 10m (FS), 5m (CS)

    Season : June-July and September - October. But there should not be rain or high humidity at the time of harvest.

    Source of Seed

    Seed should be obtained from authenticated source with tag and bill. The seeds are to be treated with fungicides (capton 2gm Kg-1) for better germination and establishment. Before sowing seeds are to be treated with Rhizobium culture.

    Seed rate/ Spacing: 20Kg ha-1, 45x20 cm

    Manure's and fertilizers
    Compost : 12.5tons ha-1
    25:50:25 NPK Kg ha-1

    Pest and Diseases

    Plant protection

    1. To control pod borer spray any one of the following insecticides. Carbaryl 5% 0.25Kg ha-1 or Phasalone 4% 0.25 Kg ha-1 or Endosulphan 4% 0.25kg ha-1 or Quinolphos 1.5% 0.25 Kg ha-1 or Monocrotophos 0.04% 625ml ha-1.

    2. To control yellow mosaic, pull out the plants and burn them.

    Roguing

    The off types and volunteer plants are to be removed as and when they occur from vegetative to harvesting stage based on leaf colour, stem colour, growth status, flower colour, pod colour, seed colour etc.

    Field standards FS CS

    Offtypes (%) 0.10 0.50

    Irrigation

    Irrigation is given immediately after sowing. Light irrigation is given on 3rd day after sowing. Subsequently the field is irrigated once in 7-10 days. Critical stages are flowering and pod filling stage.

    Important Operations

    In Cowpea the tendril are to be clipped off (pinching) for good seed setting. Spraying of NAA 40 PPM at flower initiation and at peak flowering stage will promote pod and seed setting.

    Pre-harvest Sanitation Spray

    Two weeks before harvest endosulfan 0.07% should be sprayed twice at weekly interval to control pod borer and primary infestation of Bruchids.

    Harvesting

    Due to continuous flowering habit the pod setting will be continuous. Seed attains physiological maturation 27-30 days after sowing. The pods are harvested in picking which are 4-5 in number. Once over harvesting leads to shattering of seeds. The pods at maturation will be straw yellow in colour.

    Threshing

    The pods of are dried in the threshing floor and beaten with pliable bamboo sticks for removal of seeds. The extracted seeds are winnowed to get the seeds. The seeds should be dried to 10-12% moisture content under sun for good seed storage.

    Grading

    In cowpea 12/64" round perforated sieve is to be selected.

    Seed standards

    The graded seed should possess the following characters for certification and sale as certified/ truthfully labeled seed


    Parameters

    FS

    CS

    Physical purity (min)

    98

    98

    Inert matter (max) %

    2

    2

    Other crop seed (max)

    None

    10/kg

    Weed Seed (max)

    None

    10/kg

    Other distinguishable variety seed (max)

    5/kg

    10/kg

    Germination (max) (including hard seed)

    75

    75

    Moisture content (Max)

    9

    9


    Seed treatment and Storage

    The seeds should be treated with Captan+ Sevin @ 2g+200mg Kg-1 of seed for safe storage. The treated seed can be stored upto one year in open storage and upto 2years in moisture vapour proof containers, provided the seeds are devoid of bruchid infestation both primarily and secondarily.

    Seed Yield:10-12 qtl/ha


    Cereals

    SEED PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN RICE(Oryzae sativa.L)

    India is an important center of rice cultivation. The rice harvesting area in India is the world largest. The two major varieties grown worldwide today are Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa Japanica. The earliest remains of cultivated rice in sub-continent have been found in the north and west and date from around 2000 BC. Perennial wild rice still grown in Assam and Nepal. It seems to have appeared around 1400 BC in southern India after its domestication in the northern plains. Cultivation of cooking methods are thought to have spread to the west rapidly and by medieval times, southern Europe saw the introduction of rice as a hearty grain. Some says tht the word rice is derived from the Tamil word arisi. Rice is first is mentioned in the Yajur Veda (c.1500-800 BC) and then is frequently referred in Sanskrit texts.

    Paddy is the staple food of India botanically known as Oryzae sativa L. belongs to the family Poaceae. It is an economic crop of India since most of the Indians are having rice based food habits. It is also used as a raw material for cottage industries and infant food industry. The straw is fed to cattle and oil extracted from bran is used for cooking and has got high medicinal value.

    Botany

    • Highly self pollinated crop

    • Suitable (mostly) to tropical climate and warm temperate regions.

    Important cultural Practices that maintain different seed quality characters


    Choice of field, Isolation, Parent seed selection, Roguing

    Genetic purity

    Fertilizer, Spacing, Insect and Disease control, Harvesting

    Physiological Quality

    Choice of field, Harvesting, Threshing, Processing

    Physical purity


    Seed Production guidelines

    1. Stages of seed multiplication

      Following two different stages of seed multiplication systems are being followed in paddy

      • Breeder seed –Foundation seed –Certified seed

      • Breeder seed –Foundation seed- Certified seed I –Certified seed II

    2. Selection Seed Production field (Preceding Crop Requirement)

      • It should be a fertile one.

      • Saline /alkaline problem soils should be avoided

      • Should have adequate irrigation facilities and drainage facilities

      • Previous crops should not be other paddy (for 6months) varieties

      • If there is legume after paddy it can be selected.

      • If the previous crop is of the same variety and if it is certified then it can be selected.

      • Before planting the field should be inspected by the certification officer and approved for seed production

    3. Isolation

      • Isolated from other varieties (Genetic purity) other crop (Physical purity) at least by distance is 3-5m (self pollination).

    4. Selection of seed

      • Must be from authenticated source (UAS’s/KSSC)

      • Must be suitable generation class for further multiplication (Eg. BS/FS/CS)

      • Must be checked by certification officer before sowing

    5. Seed Rate Types of cultivation

      Bold Varieties: 25Kgs
      Medium/fine Varieties: 20-25 kg/ha

    6. Seed Treatment

      • Can grade using salt water (1.06 density) to separate choppy seeds

      • Dress with fungicide @ 2g /kg. (Thiram/Capton/Carbandizim)

      • If dormant soak the seed with 0.5 % KNO3 FOR 16 h

    7. Seed bed (Nursery) preparation

      • Select the land which should be fertile

      • Puddle the land for good tilth

      • Form small beds and (Sunken Nursery) for easy operation (2 x 50m)

      • Let the width be small and length be long (easy handling)

      • 200 sq.m. Nursery is needed for planting 1 hectare (depends on area)

      • Form separate channels for irrigating different beds of different varieties to avoid genetic contamination

      • Level the bed uniformly before sowing

      • Allow thin film of water to stand on the bed before sowing and maintain upto emergence

      • Let the water stand in nursery to a tune of 2.3 cm throughout the nursery period.

    8. Seed Preparation

      Loosely pack the seed in jute (pervious container).

      • Soak in water for 24 hours (Running H2O)

      • If possible change the water 2/3 times

      • Remove from water – tightly pack

      • Incubate for 24 hours in dark

      • Sprinkle water to avoid drying

      • At slight radicle emergence the seed in READY FOR SOWING

    9. Nursery Sowing

      • Broadcast the germinated seed on the thin film of water carefully and uniformly (approximately: 2 handful of seed in m2 of seed bed; 5 kg / 100 m2) (2 x 50) bed.

      • Take care that seed should not reach the adjacent field.

      • Do not irrigate initially

      • After emergence irrigate and raise the level according to the seedling height

      • Weed the nursery and keep it clean

      • If needed spray or include in the irrigation water, the fungicide at lower doses.

      • Based on the growth if needed give some fertilizer (N and P)

    10. Size of Main field

      • Depends on the availability of labour, machines, irrigation

      • Planting time can be altered depending upon the availability of accessories.

      • As self pollinated and isolation distance is low (3m).

    11. Mainfield preparation

      • Put cultivator at dry condition

      • Harrow the soil to loosen the soil (fine tilth)

      • Flood the field with water

      • Puddle for 2.3 times using cage wheel

      • Apply P and K at last puddling

      • Puddle as much that the water stands on the loose muddy soil

      • Proper leveling of puddled field is needed for uniform water stagnationThe bunds must be plastered well to have a check on weed growth and water control.

    12. Transplanting

      • At the age 25-30 days (Depending on Var) pull out the seedlings (10.15 cm height) from the nursery bed and transfer to mainfield.

      • Pull out seedlings based on need.

      • Avoid aged seedlings for transplanting

      • Stagnate water upto 2-3 cm and transplant the seedlings

      • Use 25 x 20cm spacing for planting soil

      • Use wire or board for precise and uniform planting

      • Planting depth may be 3-5 cm.

      • Transplant the seedlings at the rate of 1-2 seedlings / hill

      • On growing season – standing water should be 5 cm (always).

    13. Fertilizer

      • Apply full dose of P and K at last puddling / ploughing

      • Apply N in 2 split doses 1st at tillering phase, 2nd at Panicle initiation stage.

      • Dosage (vary with area) (Eg.: 120:60:60 kg/ha)

      • Better if based on soil analysis.

      • If chlorosis seen at tillering phase apply FeSO4 (0.5% spray if necessary).

      • Spray Diammonium phosphate fertilizer at panicle initiation stage for effective tillering.

    14. Weeding

      • Use pre-emergence weedicide to control weeds at early stage.

      • Hand weed the crop at 20 days after transplanting and before panicle initiation stage

      • Avoid weeding at bloom stage and at later stage.

      • Common weeds : Cyprus spp., Echinocloa sp.

    15. Insects and Diseases

      • Apply insecticides and fungicides as recommended to the area.

      • Common Diseases are : Rust, Bunt, leaf spot, Rust.

      • Common insects are : Brown plant hopper, leaf roller etc.

    16. Roguing

      • Is important to maintain for maintenance of genetic purity

      • Remove all off types (deviants of the variety) and Rogues (variant of the crop)

      • “Remove when doubt” – rule.

    17. Roguing characters for paddy

      • General appearance (Tall, medium, short)

      • Leaf colour (Dark green, Pale green).

      • Leaf shape (Broad, narrow).

      • Panicle shape (open, close).

      • Awns (appendages) (Awned, Awnless)

      • Glume colour (Pink, green)

      • Boot leaf (Rectangle, erect)

      • Tillering (Heavy, Medium)

      • Maturity (Late, early – Uniform)

      • Grain type (long, slender, short, bold).

      • Hull colour (Dark yellow, light).

      • Kernal colour (Red, white)

      ROUGUING SHOULD BE DONE AS AND WHEN REQUIRED FROM THE BEGINNING UPTO LAST (Harvest)

    18. Field Inspection

      • Done by the Seed Certification Officer on registration for certification.

      • Done at

        1. Tillering phase

        2. Heading phase

        3. Before harvest

    19. Field condition required at field inspection

      • The field should be free of rogues / offtypes at the time of inspection

      • If the percent of rogues is above the certification standards then the field is rejected (e.g. 0.2% Max. limit in India).

      • Wild rice should not be there in the field

      • The objectionable weed also should be below the maximum limit (e.g.: 0.02% India) for getting the crop certified.

      • Look for: At the times of inspection the characters of variety grown will be checked with the description of the varieties.

    20. Physiological maturity

      • Earheads turn golden yellow color and will droop. (Lodging should be avoided)

      • When 85% are so crop is ready for harvest

      • The moisture content will be about 18-20%

    21. Crop duration

      • 90-160 days highly depends on varieties specified (eg. : THANU : 130 days)

    22. Harvesting

      At 85% maturity, drain the field and allow drying (field) for easy harvest.

      22.1.Manual

      • Harvest with straw with sickle (manual)

      • Bundle the produce.

      • Transfer to thrashing floor for thrashing and drying

      22.2.Mechanical

      • Machine should be cleaned thoroughly to avoid mechanical mixtures

      • Machin harvesting should be done at moisture content of 18-20%.

    23. Threshing

      Threshing must be done carefully in order to reduce the risks of damaging the seeds and to avoid mechanical mixtures.

      • M/C should be 18-23%.

      • Clean the threshing floor, equipments, containers to avoid genetic and physical mixture.

      • Produce can be threshed using tractor (with rubber tiers with deep grooves) or mechanical thresher.

      • Winnow immediately after threshing

    24. Winnowing and Cleaning

      Winnowing aims at cleaning the seeds i.e. getting rid of impurities – straw, vegetation debris, insects and stones

      • Tractor threshed produce winnowed and cleaned prior to drying.

    25. Drying

      When seeds has just been harvested, it is still moist and therefore dried, since well-dried seeds keeps longer, insect attack and fungus diseases are reduced.

      • Spresd the seed in the oper air for few days.

      • Avoid drying seed under hot sun.

      • Dry the seed (harvested/threshed producer) under sun to bring the m/c to 12-14%

      • Frequent stirring of material is necessary while drying.

      • Can also mechanically dried using driers (avoid high temperature to high moist seed).

    26. Seed processing

      • Use air screen cleaner with oblong sieve

      • At processing the certification officer will check and will take sample and will sent it the STL for seed standard verification.

      • On having the minimum requirement of seed standards (eg : Physical purity 98.0%; Germination 80% etc.) the crop/produce will be as certified seed and the concerned tags (Blue coloured) will be issued by the certification officer.

    27. Seed Dressing

      Based on the time of usage the seed will be dressed with captan or thiram @ 2gkg-1 of seed.

    28. Bagging and Tagging

      The dressed seed will be bagged according to requirement (25 kg) and the bag will be given certification tags with the standard of its quality (Physical, Physiological and Genetic purity).

    29. Expected yield

      3 – 5 tons/ha (depending upon the area and variety)

    30. Marketing

      Seed may go to Govt. Depots, (or) to contractors (or) Private seed depots (Depending on availabilities and practice of the farmers)

    31. Field standards for certification (C.S. INDIA)


      Class of Seed

      C.S.

      F.S.

      Isolation

      3 m

      3

      Off types (max.)

      0.20%

      0.05%

      Inseparable other crop seeds

      Nil

      Nil

      Objectionable weed (max.)

      0.02%

      0.01%

      Plants affected by seed borne disease

      Nil

      Nil

      Special care

      No wild Rice

      No wild Rice


    32. Seed standards for certification (C.S. INDIA)


      Class of Seed

      C.S.

      F.S.

      Pure seed (min.)

      98

      98

      Inert matter (max.)

      2

      2

      Other crop seed (max.)

      20 No/kg

      10 No/kg

      Total weed seed (max.)

      20 No/kg

      10 No/kg

      Other distinct variety

      20 No/kg

      10 No/kg

      Objectionable weed seed (max.)e

      5 No/kg

      2 No/kg

      Germination % (min.)

      80 %

      80 %

      Moisture content (%)

      (i) Ordinary container

      13%

      13%

      (ii) Vapour proof container

      8 %

      8 %

      Seeds infected by diseases (max.)

      0.5

      0.1

      Huskless grain (max.)

      2% by number

      2% by number



    Do’s and Don’ts in Paddy Seed Production


    Do’s

    Don’ts

    Keep the seed field free from voluntary plants, objectionable weed plants, designated disease infected stubbles and debris from the seed field before sowing.

    Don’t select the land in which different variety of same crop was grown

    Sow the seeds in recommended season only

    Don’t produce seeds in off season

    Verify the tag and seal of the seed container/bag.

    Don’t use seeds, which label is tapered

    Look the seed for physical purity, ODVs and germination

    Don’t use the seeds which are not tested and certified

    Use recommended seed rate

    Don’t overcrowde the seeds during sowing

    Treat the seed before sowing

    Don’t use expired chemical

    Place the seeds at appropriate depth

    Don’t sow too shallow or deep

    Moisten the soil before planting seeds

    Follow recommended sowing method

    Follow recommended fertilization

    Don’t under/over fertilize the crop

    Irrigate the crop as per requirement of crop based on Soil type, Season, Crop requirement and Stage of the crop

    Water enough but NOT too much.

    Manage the objectionable weed plants

    Don’t allow weeds to grow

    Remove the plants of designated diseases

    Rough out the off types, Rouging should be completed before seed crop comes to flowering/harvesting

    Don’t allow roughs till harvest

    Harvest the seed crop right on physiological maturity to get maximum seed quality and to avoid quantity loss

    Don’t allow crop to wither

    Store the produce in non moist area

    After harvest, do not heap the produce

    Use only cleaned threshing yard and machineries to avoid contamination due to admixture.

    Don’t use threshing yard which had more cracks and crevices

    At optimum moisture content of the seed material to be in threshed to avoid mechanical injury to the seed.

    Don’t thresh at high moisture or at too low moisture condition

    Clean and dry the seed material to the prescribed level fixed for the crop

    Don’t bag the seed in vapor proof bag at high moisture

    Do’s

    Don’ts

    Use fresh or properly cleaned gunny bags for packing

    Don’t use gunny bags used for different variety of same crop

    Store the seed material in cleaned storage with identifiable condition

    Stacking should not be more than 3-4 m. in case of cereals and 2.5-3 m. for other crops

    The seed storage place should be dry and cool and clean and should be sprayed with specific fungicide/pesticide (fumigant)

    Don’t store seeds in un sanitized warehouse

    Store the grains at ambient temperature and Humidity <60% in dedicated area.

    Do not store in open, humid or moist area.

    Avoid mechanical injuries to seeds during harvesting, threshing and processing.

    Do not store the injured or broken seeds.

    Use plastic or wooden pallets to store the seed bags

    Do not store the grains directly on the floor

    Stacking must be done in a way to facilitate maximum air flow and maintain aeration.

    Do not store in close and compact manner.

    Use rodent traps and other means like pest-o flash to control rodent, insect and pests.

    Do not allow rodent and pest to invade in storage area.

    Storage container must be free from openings to prevent insect, pest and foreign matter to gain access to stored seeds

    Do not put any container with opening without sealing or closing the opening.

    The material should be regularly inspected for development of any pest and efficient remedial measures must be employed immediately to keep them under control.

    Do not allow the insects to proliferate inside storage area.

    Make the storage area free from cracks and holes on floor and walls to avoid entry of water by seepage from ground or walls. The godown should provide maximum possible protection from moisture, rain, insects, pests, moulds, rodents, birds, fire etc.

    Do not store in area with cracks, holes and moisture.

    The stacks are built in the form of domes. As protection against rains and sun the stacks should be covered with thick (600 to 1000gauge) black polyethylene sheets and the cover should be tied to the stack with the help of plastic ropes.

    Do not store without covering in open area.


All Rights are reserved. | Terms & ConditionsDesigned and developed by Microtree Solutions.