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Agricultural Soil Management



Soil Management


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

Extent of soil erosion

It is estimated that out of 305.9 mha of reporting area 145 mha is in need of conservation measures. Gullies are the most spectacular evidence of the destruction of soil.

Wind erosion

Saltation:the major portion of the soil carried by wind is moved in a series of short bounces called Saltation.The soilcarried in a Saltation consists of fine particles ranging from0.1 – 0.5 mm in diameter.

Mechanical measures of erosion control: -

  1. Basin listing:Basin listing consists in making of smallinterrupted basins along the contour with a special implementcalled a basin -lister.

  2. Subsoiling:This method consists in breaking with a subsoiler the hard and impermeable subsoil to conserve more rainwater by improving the physical conditions of a soil.

  3. Contour –Bunding:This consists in making a comparatively narrow based embankment at intervals across the slope of theland on a level that is along the contour.It is an importantmeasure that conserves soil and water in arid & semiarid areas.Slope - 3-6 %

  4. Bench terracing:It consists of a series of platforms having suitable vertical drops along contours or on suitable gradedlines across the general slope of the land.The vertical dropmay vary from 60 – 180 cm depending upon slope and soilcondition.Slope- 16 – 33%

Water sources: -

  • The southwesterly monsoon contributes over 80 % to the total precipitation.

  • Shallow well derive their water supply from the surrounding area through seepage, percolation, high water table etc.

  • Deep wells depend for their water on aquifers

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